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النشر الإلكتروني

7. PERFECT TENSE.

This tense is not described by Içvara-kaula. It is formed by conjugating the Adjectival Past Participle with the Present tense of the Auxiliary Verb. As in the case of the other past tenses, the construction is passive in verbs of the first conjugation, and active in verbs of the second and third. The pronominal suffixes are added as in the past tenses. They are added to the Auxiliary Verb, and not to the Participle. In the first conjugation they are suffixes of the agent case, and in the other two of the nominative case. As in the case of the Past tense, there are a, b, and c forms,-i.e., we may omit the suffixes at pleasure, except in the second person. Thus,

(a). afar maha o tạmi karamật" chuh, by him has been made,-
(b). af*The 99 tạmi kar«mqt« chu-n, by him has been made-

by-him,-
(c). Aqua pa karamat" chu-n, has been made-by-him,-
all meaning' he has made.'
In the second person, only the band c forms are used. Thus,-
(6). atqha u tohě karmatchu-we, by you has been made-

by-you. (c). Aquesa karamąta chu-we, has been made by you, both

meaning ‘ you made. We cannot say a tõhě kar#matu chuh. In the paradigms, I shall only give the

c. forms. The Auxiliary Verb may either precede or follow the Participle. Thus, teha 54 kar“mat” chu-m or 7 *chu-m kar“mat”, but it is considered more elegant for it to precede, when in a sentence, and not standing by itself. Thus, a gun ataq mě chu-m gare kạræmat", I have built a house. When standing by itself, the Auxiliary Verb usually follows.

The following is the conjugation of this tense. Regarding the formation of the Adjective Past Participle, and its declension, see p. 29.

A. FIRST CONJUGATION.

(a). Transitive verb, (c. Forms only). 'I have made,' Lit. 'he, she, it, etc., has (have) been made by me.'

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कमनु मुथ् kar mat chu-th. कर्मचू पथ् karompted chd-th. करिमति दिए kprimat chi-th. कर्यमन पथ् karmats.

che-th.

3 que gira karmatchu-n. *** wy karomatik chě-n. fcuffer frą karimạtá chi-n. Feia va karěmate® chě-n.

Plur.

1 कमनु दु kar*mat* chuth. | कर्मचू च kar*mple * chih. | करिमनि हिड् kpr mati chik. | कर्यमन यह karāmate chth. 2 que ya karomata chu-we. nike wa karomąts- aftafa fær karimati chi-wo. Peny a karěmatse

chě-m.

che-wc.

chě-wo.

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(b). Impersonal verb, (c. Forms only).
'I have laughed,' lit., ' it has been laughed by me.'
Sing. 1. septen asemata chu-m, I have laughed.

2. Entre asemąt" chu-th, thou hast laughed.

3. ways gsømata chu-n, he has laughed.
Plur. 1. goumatu chuh, we have laughed.

2. Stiga qs®mat" chu-we, you have laughed.
3. ventana nu asumata chu-kh, they have laughed.

Pronominal Suffixes. When the grammatical subject (i.e., the logical object) is a pronoun, it is frequently added in the shape of another pronominal suffix (nominative form). The following are the masculine forms used. Feminine forms can be easily made on the same principle :

*quia ya karumąta chu-th-as, have been made-by thee-I,

thou hast made me. So wpisura karồmats“ chă-th-as, thou hast made me (fem.).

af #Fa faq karimată chi-th, thou hast made us (masc.).

There is no suffix for the first person plural. Ha 4 bạn"mạt chu-l-as, he has made me. alpha gre karamątchu-w-as, you have made me. que kậræmæta chu-h-as, they have made me.

The chu-m-akh, I have made thee. करमतु kpr mata

a chu-n-akh, he has made thee.

chu-kh, we have made thee.

Lyrchu-h-akh, they have made thee. When the logical object is the third person, the forms of the first and third persons are not used in this way. This applies also to the plural. We thus have only the two following forms:

Sgua chu-th-an, thou hast made him. karmat",

9 chu-w-an, you have made him. For 'I have made him,' we must use the full pronoun; thus, T4 phim suh chu-m kørumata, and so for the others.

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दिमव chi-m-aw°, I have made you. fcHfH S karimată, frana chi-n-awe, he has made you.

शिव chi-h-aus, they have made you. afecafort > karimat',

Sfrue chi-th-akh, thou hast made them.

fua chi-w-akh, you have made them.

B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Neuter verb. .

(c. forms only).
I have become, &c.

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विमति शिर बुधमन पर bộuu mata chu-s. bovumøtet chě-s. bovimat: chih. bověmats chěh.

बर्मचू पर
विमति शिव

यमन शव bộvømatu chu-kh. bộulmatsa bộvåmati chi-we. bověmatse che-kh. .

che-w. .
बवून घर
विमनि किए

यमन पर bpvimate chuh. | Bovimate. chsh. bvimati chih. dvāmate. cheh.

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बुफ्षेमच धस् wuphyềmats*

chě-s. बुफोमैचू चल wuphyāmated

che-kh. बुझ्धेमचू

घर wuphyēmate*

wuphyömat

chu-kh.

बुफोमन पर wuphyēmaldo

chěh. बुपमा घर wuphyamateo

che-we. बुफोमन पर wuphyềmats

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बुफ्योमनु पुर

बुपोमनि शिए

wuphyömat"

chěh.

cheh. .

chuh. .

wuphyēmati

chih.

8. THE PERIPHRASTIC PLOPERFECT TENSE. This tense, also, is not mentioned by Içvara-kaula. It is formed exactly like the perfect, except that the past tense of the auxiliary verb is used instead of the present. It is unnecessary to give full paradigms, the following examples will suffice.

acha toy karmat" īsu-m, I had made (him).
mening atau karomatså -m, I had made (her).
aftafa alfoy karimati ąsi-m, I had made (them, masc.).
perty 14 karčmatse āsa-m, I had made (them, fem.).
yang step bộv=mat" īsu-s, I had become.

gah steg wuphyāmat" īsu-s, I had flown.
Or, with double pronominal suffix.
*The daug karmat" īs®-th-as, thou hadst made me.

B. Imperative Mood.

1 (a). THE PRESENT TENSE.
The terminations are (viii. ii. 5).
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
2 h.

2 f iv. 3 इन in.

3 G 1. If the root ends in a consonant, the <h of the 2nd singular is elided (6). Thus, kar, make thou.

afrą kariv, make ye. afrą karin, let him make. afrą karin, let them make. From fe di, give, which does not end in a consonant, we get for 2nd singular fex dih, not fę di.

If the root of the verb contains the letter i Ö, that ot ū becomes oü, in the Imperative (7). Thus,

Diş röz, stand, 3rd Sing. Imperat. fyn rüzin.
no tol, weigh,

aforą tūlin.
to poth, be fat,

groa pūthin. So also, if the root contains tē, it becomes & i (7). Thus,ir nēr, go forth,

afą nirin. çēk, fear,

affaq çtkin. a pēd, exude,

पौडिन् pidin. .

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