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These changes, however, do not occur in the second person singular (8). Thus, we have, on rõz, no tāl, ga poth, aç nēr, क :पेड़

çõk, tę pēd.

We thus find the Present Imperative of the rõz, remain, to be conjugated as follows. SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1 do roz.

for rüziv. 2 fyra rūzin.

fyra rūzin. Every root ending in a vowel, takes the letter a y before all terminations, except that of the second person singular (10). Moreover a final i of the root is changed to a ya(ě), except in the case of the verbs fa ni, take, fe di, give, and fu yi, come (11). We thus get the following conjugation of a verb whose root ends in a vowel.

(a) fa khi, eat.

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20 khěh.

ofya khěyiv.
3 fuc khěyin.

arga khěyin.
(6) fedi, give.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
2 दिr dih. .

fefua diyiv. . 3 दियिन् diyin.

fefaq diyin. The root fo yi, come, is further irregular, in that, besides being conjugated like fe di, it also optionally takes the following form (viii. ii. 12). SINGULAR.

PLORAL.
2 बल wols (not वर wol). afara wõliv.
3 for wólin.

fer wolin.
The root aa bov, become, has the following forms (14).

SINGULAR.
2 bỏe.
3 वविन् bövin, बयिन् boyin.
J. 1. 11

PLURAL. wfaa bõviv. faz bovin or afaq boyin.

The verbs (see pp. 16, 22, 37 and 49).

y tsar, be inwardly wrathful.

phòç, be inwardly wrathful. y phuh, be inwardly wruthful. Himarts, be inwardly wrathful.

wuts, be burnt. fay phits, forget.

pja tyamb, look eagerly. All of which are impersonal, and are only used in the third person singular, to which the appropriate pronominal suffixes of the dative are added. (viii. ii. 9). Thus,

frap tsarin-ay, let there be inward anger to thee, i.e., be

thou angry

fraa tsạrin-awe, be ye angry.
frag tsarin-as, let him be angry.

frarą tsarin-akh, let them be angry.
Regarding the vowel changes, see the following rule.

When a pronominal suffix is added to the Imperative third person singular or plural, the ri of the imperative becomes 2-Mātrā, and the preceding vowel is modified. Thus,

afra karin, let him make.

aftay karin-am, let him make for me. The second person is,

Sing. PTT karu-m, make thou for me.

Plur. porn karyū-m, make ye for me. When a pronominal suffix is added to the second person singular of the imperative of a root ending in a consonant, the letter 3 u is inserted (16). Thus, pra karu-n, make him or it (a very common form); FTų karu-m, make for me; Tę karu-s, make for him; *© karu-kh, make for them.

As regards roots ending in a vowel, from fæ khi, eat, we have CR khặ-m, đc.

From fa ni, take, fę di, give, and for yi, come, we have feu di-m, give thou to me, &c.

When a pronominal suffix is added to the second plural imperative of any verb, trio, becomes a (17). Thus, areia karyű-m, make ye for me ; nie karyū-s, make ye for him; asia kuryū-kh, make ye for them. So from fæ khi, eat, ay khyayā-m, &c., and from fa ni, fe di, and far yi, femei diyū-m, &c.

1 (6). THE MODIFIED PRESENT IMPERATIVE. This, though not a respectful imperative, is more polite than the simple tense. It is formed by inserting the particle a ta. It expresses encouragement, like the Hindi act a kurā ! It also expresses permission; thus, 'very well, if you wish to do it, do it.' The terminations are as follows (viii. ii. 14).

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Tra itao. इनन् itan.

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3 इतन् 'tan. The terminations are all added to the root direct (15). The being i-mātrā, a preceding vowel is modified in the 2nd plural, and 3rd sing. and plur. Thus,

SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 2 aa karte,

afraq karitav. 3 afraq karitan. fraą karitan. So also from an khār, mount, afvaa kharitan; from a wal, bring down, alfena walitan ; from dat röz, remain, 2nd sing. Nota rõzte, 3rd sing. efaq rūzitan; from it nēr, go forth, aal nërte, affraa niritan ; and from g tsar, be inwardly wrathful, &c., frana tsaritanay, &c., (see p. 82). Regarding roots ending in vowels we have from fe khi, eat. SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 2 en khěta.

efona khěyitav.

, 3 funą khěyitan. elftaa khěy'tan.

For fa ni, take, fx di, give, and fo yi, come, we have, however, the following forms. SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 2 दिन dito.

fafana diyétav. 3 fefqaz diyítan. fefyną diyítan. . The pronominal suffixes are added regularly, except that in the second plural, « av becomes o ō (18). Thus, wfmną karito-m, make ye for me ; afratą karitò-n, make ye him ; fina karitõ-, make yo for him; afaa karito-kh, make ye for them.

2. TAE FUTURE IMPERATIVE.

This is formed by adding rin izi if the root ends in a consonant, and fo zi if it ends in a vowel. Before ret izi, a preceding vowel is modified (viii. ii. 22, 24). This tense does not change for number or person. It means 'you, or he, should do a thing at some future time,' or 'make a practice of doing it. Thus

en affo treh karizi, thou shouldest do.
af affo tohi karizi, you should do.
Er af ren suh karozi, he should do.

fay after tim karăzi, they should do.
So also from ar khar, mount, alfifo khărizi; from a wāl,
bring down, alfury walizi; from tot rõz, stand, #forfa rūzizi ; and
from ir nēr, go forth, fira nirözi. I cannot find that this form
is used with impersonal verbs like yt tsar etc., mentioned when dealing
with the Simple Imperative.

As regards verbs ending in a vowel, we have from fe khi, eat, Baro khězi ; so also in other cases, but from fa ni, take, fę di, give, and fo yi, come, we have faro dizi, etc.

When the pronominal suffixes 44 am and was are used with this form, fo zi becomes zya. (viii. ii. 25).

Thus afrapy karizy-am, you should make me, or for me.
So #1*1# karizy-as, you should make for him.

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In other cases, the f zi, is unchanged.
Thus aftfore karizi-y, he should make for thee.

[Note. My Paņạit also says afra karizy-an, not aferoja karizin ; so also he says aftaya karizy-awe, and afraze kąrézy-akh].

3. THE PAST IMPERATIVE. This is formed by adding § hệ for all persons and numbers to the Future Imperative (viii. ii. 23). It means you should have made so and so,' implying that he had not done it.

Thus afire karizihē, thou shouldst, you, he, or they, should have made.

Pronominal suffixes are added regularly (25). Thus feronta kar zihe-m, you should have made for me.

C. Benedictive Mood.

1. FUTURE TENSE.

This tense expresses a wish. It is formed from the Pluperfect Indicative, by substituting the following terminations (viii. ii. 26).

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2 यख yakh.
3 यन् yan.

यन् yan. The tense expresses a wish. Thus, au lagyan, may he live long. The following is a specimen of the conjugation of the tense of the verb a kar, make; Pluperfect pentą karyā-n he made.

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Mayst thou make, &c.'
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
2 कर्य karyakh.

करिव kariv. 3 operą karyan.

कर्यन् karyan. So from ta ran, cook; 3rd sing. Plup. Tenia rañā-n; 3rd sing. Bened. fara rañyan. Similarly a zēñyan, may he conquer.

Roots ending in os change the final o s to a f. Thus, from o las, live long; 3rd sing. plup. alera lāts hāv; but 3rd sing. Bened. una lagyan. So also, from pie ās, be, ginų ūgyan.

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