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These changes, however, do not occur in the second person singular (8). Thus, we have, đạt rõ, đồng tối, gia poth, ai nên
We thus find the Present Imperative of a rōz, remain, to be conjugated as follows.
Every root ending in a vowel, takes the lettery before all terminations, except that of the second person singular (10). Moreover a finali of the root is changed to a ya̸(ě), except in the case of the verbs fa ni, take, fe di, give, and fa yi, come (11). We thus get the following conjugation of a verb whose root ends in a vowel.
The root fa yi, come, is further irregular, in that, besides being conjugated like fedi, it also optionally takes the following form (viii. ii. 12).
The root bov, become, has the following forms (14).
The verbs (see pp. 16, 22, 37 and 49).
tsar, be inwardly wrathful.
phos, be inwardly wrathful.
phuh, be inwardly wrathful.
marts, be inwardly wrathful.
gwuts, be burnt.
fa phits, forget.
tyamb, look eagerly.
All of which are impersonal, and are only used in the third singular, to which the appropriate pronominal suffixes of the dative are added. (viii. ii. 9).
fa tsarin-ay, let there be inward anger to thee, i.e., be
fa tsarin-awa, be ye angry.
af tsarin-as, let him be angry.
af¶ tsarin-akh, let them be angry.
Regarding the vowel changes, see the following rule.
When a pronominal suffix is added to the Imperative third person singular or plural, the of the imperative becomes i-mātrā, and the preceding vowel is modified. Thus,
afta karin, let him make.
afa karin-am, let him make for me.
The second person is,
karu-m, make thou for me.
Plur. karyu-m, make ye for me.
When a pronominal suffix is added to the second person singular of the imperative of a root ending in a consonant, the letter u is inserted (16). Thus, karu-n, make him or it (a very common form); karu-m, make for me; karu-s, make for him;
karu-kh, make for them.
As regards roots ending in a vowel, from fa khi, eat, we have @T khăm, đe. From fa ni, take, fa di, give, and fa yi, come, we have fa di-m, give thou to me, &c.
When a pronominal suffix is added to the second plural imperative of any verb, iv, becomes a yu (17). Thus,
karyu-m, make ye
1 (b). THE MODIFIED PRESENT IMPERATIVE.
This, though not a respectful imperative, is more polite than the simple tense. It is formed by inserting the particle a ta. It expresses encouragement, like the Hindi að at kurō tō! It also expresses permission; thus, 'very well, if you wish to do it, do it.' The terminations are as follows (viii. ii. 14).
The terminations are all added to the root direct (15). The being i-mātrā, a preceding vowel is modified in the 2nd plural, and 3rd sing.
So also from
bring down, alfa
3rd sing. रूज़ितन्
walitan; from drōz, remain, 2nd sing. Așa rōzie,
rūzitan; from नेर nēr, go forth, नेर्स nerte, नौरितन्
nīritan; and from tear, be inwardly wrathful, &c., fa &c., (see p. 82).
Regarding roots ending in vowels we have from f khi, eat.
For fani, take, fa di, give, and fa yi, come, we have, however,
This is formed by adding faizi if the root ends in a consonant, and f zi if it ends in a vowel. Before fizi, a preceding vowel is modified (viii. ii. 22, 24). This tense does not change for number or person. It means 'you, or he, should do a thing at some future time,' or 'make a practice of doing it.' Thus
qe afifa tsah karizi, thou shouldest do.
afe affer tohi karizi, you should do.
ffsuh karizi, he should do.
fa affa tim karizi, they should do.
So also from khar, mount, fif khṢrizi; from bring down, aff walizi; from rōz, stand, eff rūzizi; and from ner, go forth, ff nirizi. I cannot find that this form is used with impersonal verbs like tear etc., mentioned when dealing with the Simple Imperative.
As regards verbs ending in a vowel, we have from f khi, eat, af khězi; so also in other cases, but from fa ni, take, fɛ di, give, and fa yi, come, we have faf dizi, etc.
am and as are used with this
When the pronominal suffixes form, f zi becomes zya. (viii. ii. 25). Thus af
karizy-am, you should make me, or for me.
So afta karizy-as, you should make for him,
In other cases, the f zi, is unchanged.
Thus fef kar zi-y, he should make for thee.
[NOTE. My Pandit also says af
kar zy-an, not affa kar1zin ;
so also he says fqa karizy-awɑ, and aft¶¶ karizy-akh].
3. THE PAST IMPERATIVE.
This is formed by adding
he for all persons and numbers to the
Future Imperative (viii. ii. 23). It means you should have made so and so,' implying that he had not done it.
Thus fcfar karizihē, thou shouldst, you, he, or they, should have made.
Pronominal suffixes are added regularly (25). Thus fefatų kar1zihē-m, you should have made for me.
C. Benedictive Mood.
1. FUTURE TENSE.
This tense expresses a wish. It is formed from the Pluperfect Indicative, by substituting the following terminations (viii. ii. 26).
The following is a specimen of the conjugation of the tense of the verb kar, make; Pluperfect af karyā-n he made.