صور الصفحة
PDF

These changes, however, do not occur in the second person singular (8). Thus, we have, to roz, pa tāl, no poth, aç nēr, मक Fike, पेड़ ped.

We thus find the Present Imperative of do roz, remain, to be conjugated as follows. SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1 do roz.

ofera rūziv. 2 pførą rūzin. area rūzin. Every root ending in a vowel, takes the letter at y before all terminations, except that of the second person singular (10). Moreover a final 8 i of the root is changed to a ya(ě), except in the case of the verbs fa ni, take, fę di, give, and for yi, come (11). We thus get the following conjugation of a verb whose root ends in a vowel. (a) fa khi, eat. SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
2 OF khěh.

ofaa khěyiv.
3 यिन khāyin. oraz khěyin.
(6) fç di, give.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
2 fex dih.

fefea diyiv. 3 दियिन diyin. दियिन् diyin. The root fo yi, come, is further irregular, in that, besides being conjugated like fe di, it also optionally takes the following form (viii. ii. 12). SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
2 wõle (not a wol). Efeq wõliv.
3 forą wolin.

afgą wõlin.
The root a bòv, become, has the following forms (14).
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
2 ay bov.

पवित्र bviv. 3 oraz bovin, fuq böyin. faq bòvin or afya boyin. J. 1. 11

The verbs (see pp. 16, 22, 37 and 49).

T tsar, be inwardly wrathful.

phòç, be inwardly wrathful.
8 phuh, be inwardly wrathful.
Hei marts, be inwardly wrathful.
99 wuts, be burnt.
fuy phits, forget.

ja tyamb, look eagerly. All of which are impersonal, and are only used in the third person singular, to which the appropriate pronominal suffixes of the dative are added. (viii. ii. 9). Thus, oftay tsarin-ay, let there be inward anger to thee, i.e., be

thou angry.
fraa tsarin-awe, be ye angry.
frag tsarin-as, let him be angry.

raa tsarin-akh, let them be angry.
Regarding the vowel changes, see the following rule.

When a pronominal suffix is added to the Imperative third person singular or plural, the ri of the imperative becomes i-mātrā, and the preceding vowel is modified. Thus,

afta karin, let him make.

afray karin-am, let him make for me. The second person is,

Sing. Ty karu-m, make thou for me.

Plur. neyn karyū-m, make ye for me. When a pronominal suffix is added to the second person singular of the imperative of a root ending in a consonant, the letter 5 u is inserted (16). Thus, Frą karu-n, make him or it (a very common form); *TĄ karu-m, make for me; Tą karu-s, make for him; FT? karu-kh, make for them.

As regards roots ending in a vowel, from for khi, eat, we have 1 khë-m, &c. From fa ni, take, fe di, give, and for yi, come, we have feu di-m, give thou to me, &c.

[ocr errors]

. 1 (b). THE MODIFIED PRESENT IMPERATIVE. This, though not a respectful imperative, is more polite than the simple tense. It is formed by inserting the particle a ta. It expresses encouragement, like the Hindi aut af kurā ! It also expresses permission; thus, 'very well, if you wish to do it, do it.' The terminations are as follows (viii. ii. 14). SINGULAR.

Plural. 2 ñ te.

çata itao. 3 qara itan. qua tan. The terminations are all added to the root direct (15). The i being i-mātrā, a preceding vowel is modified in the 2nd plural, and 3rd sing. and plur. Thus,

[ocr errors]

For fa ni, take, f& di, give, and fo yi, come, we have, however, the following forms. SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 2 fan dito.

fefoną diyétav. 3 दियितन diy-tan. दियितन diy tan. The pronominal suffixes are added regularly, except that in the second plural, qq av becomes o ō (18). Thus, afratą karito-m, make ye for me ; afratą kari -n, make ye him; offentą karito-s, make ye for him; aftala karito-kh, make ye for them.

2. THE FUTURE IMPERATIVE. This is formed by adding fat izi if the root ends in a consonant, and fo zi if it ends in a vowel. Before from izi, a preceding vowel is modified (viii. ii. 22, 24). Tbis tense does not change for number or person. It means you, or he, should do a thing at some future time,' or 'make a practice of doing it.' Thus

astf9 tsoh karizi, thou shouldest do aft afer tõhi karizi, you should do. Et af før suh karözi, he should do.

fæą aftre tim kærăzi, they should do. So also from an khar, mount, alfifo khặrizi; from 918 wāl, bring down, atfers walizi; from tot rõz, stand, #forfur rüzizi; and from it nēr, go forth, afiro nirizi. I cannot find that this form is used with impersonal verbs like a tear etc., mentioned when dealing with the Simple Imperative.

As regards verbs ending in a vowel, we have from fe khi, eat, pro khězi; so also in other cases, but from fa ni, take, fę di, give, and for yi, come, we have farer dizi, etc.

When the pronominal suffixes q7 am and vą as are used with this form, fo zi becomes azya. (viii. ii. 25).

Thus after karizy-am, you should make me, or for me.
So *# karézy-as, you should make for him.

In other cases, the for zi, is unchanged.
Thus aftfoy körözi-y, he should make for thee.

[Nore. My Paņạit also says aftą karózy-an, not aftrorą karizin ; 80 also he says afva karizy-awe, and after karózy-akh].

3. THE PAST IMPERATIVE. This is formed by adding for all persons and numbers to the Future Imperative (viii. ii. 23). It means you should have made so and so,' implying that he had not done it.

Thus aftfors karizihē, thou shouldst, you, he, or they, should have made.

Pronominal suffixes are added regularly (25). Thus Aftrony karizihe-m, you should have made for me.

C. Benedictive Mood.

1. Future TENSE. This tense expresses a wish. It is formed from the pluperfect Indicative, by substituting the following terminations (viii. ii. 26). SINGULAR.

PLORAL. 2 sq yakh.

8 . 3 va yan.

यन् yan. The tense expresses a wish. Thus, yua lagyan, may he live long. The following is a specimen of the conjugation of the tense of the verb 4T kar, make; Pluperfect mata karyā-n he made.

[ocr errors]
« السابقةمتابعة »