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These changes, however, do not occur in the second person singular (8). Thus, we have, durõz, tõl, po poth, iç nēr, wagęk, tę pēļ.
We thus find the Present Imperative of the rōz, remain, to be conjugated as follows.
1 do roz.
for rūzio. 2 oferą rūzin. fya rüzin. Every root ending in a vowel, takes the letter 4 y before all terminations, except that of the second person singular (10). Moreover a final r i of the root is changed to a ya(ě), except in the case of the verbs fa ni, take, fe di, give, and fo yi, come (11). We thus get the following conjugation of a verb whose root ends in a vowel.
(a) fa khi, eat.
PLURAL. 2 @ khěh.
feroa diyiv. 3 दियिन् diyin.
fefua diyin. The root for yi, come, is further irregular, in that, besides being conjugated like fedi, it also optionally takes the following form (viii. ii. 12). SINGULAR.
PLURAL. wfaa bõviv. afaz bòvin or f4q böyin.
The verbs (see pp. 16, 22, 37 and 49).
T tsar, be inwardly wrathful.
phuh, be inwardly wrathful.
pja tyamb, look eagerly. All of which are impersonal, and are only used in the third person singular, to which the appropriate pronominal suffixes of the dative are added. (viii. ii. 9). Thus, strautsarin-ay, let there be inward anger to thee, i.e., be
fra tearin-akh, let them be angry.
When a pronominal suffix is added to the Imperative third person singular or plural, the ri of the imperative becomes i-mātrā, and the preceding vowel is modified. Thus,
fra karin, let him make.
afran karin-am, let him make for me. The second person is,
Sing. Tų karu-m, make thou for me.
Plur. ney karyū-m, make ye for me. When a pronominal suffix is added to the second person singular of the imperative of a root ending in a consonant, the letter I u is inserted (16). Thus, Frą karu-n, make him or it (a very common form); **ų karu-m, make for me; Te karu-s, make for him; TTE karu-kh, make for them.
As regards roots ending in a vowel, from fe khi, eat, we have H khẽ-m, c.
From far ni, take, fe di, give, and fu yi, come, we have feu di-m, give thou to me, &c.
When a pronominal suffix is added to the second plural imperative of any verb, ta iv, becomes a yū (17). Thus, apoia karyū-m, make ye for me ; ai karyū-s, make ye for him; aga kuryū-kh, make ye for them. So from fa khi, eat, an khyayā-m, &c., and from fa ni, fe di, and यि gi, दियूम् diya-m, &c.
1 (b). THE MODIFIED PRESENT IMPERATIVE. This, though not a respectful imperative, is more polite than the simple tense. It is formed by inserting the particle a ta. It expresses encouragement, like the Hindi act a kuro to! It also expresses permission; thus, 'very well, if you wish to do it, do it.' The terminations are as follows (viii. ii. 14).
yra itao. इतन् 'tan.
3 इनन् itan. The terminations are all added to the root direct (15). The i being i-mātrā, a preceding vowel is modified in the 2nd plural, and 3rd sing. and plur. Thus,
PLURAL. 2 sd kart
afræą karitav. 3 afraq karitan. afraq kạritan. So also from ar khār, mount, afiną khăritan; from a rewal, bring down, afwaą walitan ; from rūz, remain, 2nd sing. Aga rozie, 3rd sing. efą rūzitan; from ar nēr, go forth, tai nērto, affraa niritan ; and from y tsar, be inwardly wrathful, &c., oftana tsaritanay, &c., (see p. 82). Regarding roots ending in vowels we have from fe khi, eat. SINGULAR.
PLURAL. 2 en khěte,
ellana khěyitav. 3 farq khỏyitan.
efpaą khěyi tan.
For fa ni, take, fę di, give, and fo yi, come, we have, however, the following forms. SINGULAR.
PLURAL. 2 दित dito.
fafuna diyétav. 3 fefqaq diyétan.
. fafuną diyítan. The pronominal suffixes are added regularly, except that in the second plural, qq av becomes ō (18). Thus, fratą karétő-m, make ye for me ; afratą karito-n, make ye him; fonte karito-s, make ye for him; fina karito-kh, make ye for them. .
2. THE FUTURE IMPERATIVE.
This is formed by adding for 'zi if the root ends in a consonant, and fo zi if it ends in a vowel. Before fe zi, a preceding vowel is modified (viii. ii. 22, 24). This tense does not change for number or person. It means "you, or he, should do a thing at some future time,' or 'make a practice of doing it.' Thus
my affo teh karizi, thou shouldest do.
fax aftre tim kąrözi, they should do. So also from ar khar, mount, alfif khỏrizi; from a wāl, bring down, alfers walizi; from time rõz, stand, efur rūzizi ; and from ir nēr, go forth, itfire nirözi. I cannot find that this form is used with impersonal verbs like y tsar etc., mentioned when dealing with the Simple Imperative.
As regards verbs ending in a vowel, we have from fe khi, eat, par khězi ; so also in other cases, but from fa ni, take, f& di, give, and fo yi, come, we have fofo dizi, etc.
When the pronominal suffixes 94 am and we as are used with this form, fo zi becomes zya. (viii. ii. 25).
Thus afrapy karizy-am, you should make me, or for me.
In other cases, the fos zi, is unchanged.
[Note. My Paņạit also says afvaa karizy-an, not affiferą karizin ; so also he says afrapa karizy-awa, and fry karázy-akh].
3. THE PAST IMPERATIVE.
This is formed by adding shē for all persons and numbers to the Future Imperative (viii. ii. 23). It means you should have made so and so,' implying that he had not done it.
Thus #fifth karizihē, thou shouldst, you, he, or they, should have made.
Pronominal sufixes are added regularly (25). Thus afferta karizihe-m, you should have made for me.
C. Benedictive Mood.
1. FUTURE TENSE. This tense expresses a wish. It is formed from the Pluperfect Indicative, by substituting the following terminations (viii. ii. 26).
2 यस् yakh.
यन् yan. . The tense expresses a wish. Thus, yua lagyan, may he live long. The following is a specimen of the conjugation of the tense of the verb * kar, make; Pluperfect wafa karya-n he made.
Mayst thou make, &c.'
करिव kariv. 3 कर्यन् karyan.
कर्यन् karyan. . So from a ran, cook; 3rd sing. Plup. Tariq raña-n; 3rd sing. Bened. Ta rañyan. Similarly a zčñyan, may he conquer.
Roots ending in gs change the final y s to af. Thus, from we las, live long; 3rd sing. plup. alkra lāts hāv; but 3rd sing. Bened. wa lagyan. So also, from 918 ās, be, eina āgyan.