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النشر الإلكتروني

The verb via chāv, use, has for its second singular Bened. either 17 chāvyakh or Tu chāyyakh. The latter form is peculiar to the second person singular (27).

The verb wa bov, be, become, changes its final a v to y throughout. Thus, quia boyyan (not a bõvyan), may it be; # gera me boyyan, may it not be, God forbid ! (26).

Pronominal suffixes are added in the usual way. Thus, *197 laçyan-ay, may he live for thee! Ta põsyan-ay, may he be victorious for thee!

This tense only occurs in the above verbs (26).

D. Conditional Mood.

1. PRESÉNT FUTURE TENSE.

This is the same as Future Indicative. An example of its use is

gua -y gatshe, suh wucha-n. If I go, I shall see him. y boy is contracted from bờh, I, and we ay, if. The object is mentioned twice. First fully in suh, and again as a pronominal suffix (an).

2. THE PAST CONDITIONAL Tense. Tliis tense is used if things are spoken of that might have, but have not, happened. Thus, F 97 ofos et fra rūd ay pěyihē, sóch sapazihe, if there had been rain, there would have been plenty. It is coujugated as follows (viii. ii. 32). SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
1 mei karahặ, (if) I had made. कराव् karahāv.
2 mala karahākh,

affeeta kari hiv.
3 aftë karihē,

करहान् karahān. Notes. (1) When the last syllable contains the vowel q ā, that vowel is always modified. This is not meutioned by Içvara-kaula, but is a fact.

(2) The short i in the second person plural is i-mātrā, and modifies the preceding root vowel when possible.

Verbs ending in vowels are declined as follows, inserting 4 m in the first person, as in the Future Indicative.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1 @ast khyamah), (if) I had eaten. euela khyamahav. 2 erta khyahı kh.

mferetą khěyihiv. . 3 erfus khčyihe.

estą khyahın. From fa ni, take, fe di, give, and fo yi, come, we have as follows.

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2nd person

Pronominal suffixes are added as follows: {arplą karuha-m, (if) I or we had made myself or for

myself. asta karahā-y,

thee, or for thee. Added to ala karaha-we,

you, or for you. 1st person. quelą karahả-n,

him. Telę karahấ-8,

for him. mrela karahặ-kh,

them, or for them. meula karahậ-m, (if) thou hadst made me, or for me. Added to atklą karaha-n,

him. करहास् karaha.s,

for him. singular. atrla karaha-kh,

them, or for them. af karihyū-m, (if) you had made me or for me. Added to afya karihyū-n,

him. plural. afya kari hyü-s,

for him. (afreya kari hyū-kh,

them, or for them. afitų karihēm, (if) he had made me or for me. Added to करिहीय karihi-y,

thee, or for thee. 3rd person करिडेव karihs-tu°,

you, or for you. singular. करिडेस् karihs-s,

him, or for him. frię karihe-kh

them, or for them.

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2nd person

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3rd person

acetay karahặn-am, if they had made me or for me. Added to

thee or for thee. करहालय karahān-ay, arstaa karahõn-awo,

you or for you. plural. prelax karahõn-as,

him or for him. gretarę karahận-akh,

them or for them. Note.-All the forms added to the second person are irregular ; and also the suffix of the second person singular, when added to the verb in the third person singular.

The feminine impersonal verbs a tsar, be inwardly angry, etc., (see pp. 16, 22, 37, 49, 54, 68 and 82) are conjugated as follows:

gfrią tsarihē-m, (if) there had been inward anger to me; (if)

I had been inwardly angry.
e asē tsarihē, (if) we had been inwardly angry.
gfrsta tsarihi-y, if thou hadst been
yfir tsarihe-wo, if you had been
gfrey tearihe-s, if he had been

afcha tsarihe-kh, if they had been
This tense may also be used in expressions like the following :-

cafti su-y karihē, even he did it. That is to say, 'why did you do it? It was bis business, and he has done it already.' (35).

APPENDIX. LIST OF KĀÇMĪRI VERBS ARRANGED ACCORDING TO CONJUGATIONS AND

FINAL LETTERS. As the forms taken by a Kāçmiri Verb depend partly on the Conjugation to which it belongs, and partly on the final letter of its root, the following list of Verbal Roots is arranged under Conjugations, and then alphabetically according to the final letter of each root.

For the meaning of these roots, and the form of the Past and Aorist Tenses of each, the reader is referred to the List of Kāçmiri Verbs given ante, Vol. LXV, Pt. I, pp. 314 and ff.

First CONJUGATION. khi, c, d, ni, hi.

khisk, chak, chik, tak, tuk, tok, thāk, thuk, dak, truk, thyak, thok, drok, phak, phuk, phâk, phrak, bak, brak, çek, çrõk, suk, hyak.

jakh, lakh, likh, lēkh.
tsyang, zāg, tãg, dag, phãg, būg, mang, rang, lang, lag, wung, wõlang,

hag.

waz,

kharec.
khãch, tach, buch, bech, much, rach, wuch, hyachh.
mõj.
tsarts, nats, phits, marts, wấte, wuts.
yitsh, kãtsh, pritsh, britsh.
arz, kanz, khans, graz, nyawdz, pāz, pūz, print, baz, bue, bõz, māt,
soz.

kapat, kật, khat, chất, tsat, tsit, tsēt, tshat, dật, pit, prāt, rat, lut, wat, wāt.

wuth.
kad, gand, tshand, tshād, tsãą, tād, mand, mãd, lad, sed, hyad.
prin.
kat, khut, nyat, çrut, sat.
math.
ärad, gind, gund, pad, pond, mand, lad, wad, wand, vyand, sad.

an, ätshan, ăn (=^n), kèm, kham, chăn, sân, trẽn, tshua, gỗ, sẵn, ļosan, dòn, den, pachān, parzan, pilan, putsan, prazan, phān, măn, mun, mēn, ran, lón, lon, wakhan, wan, vyatshan, wān.

krp, khap, gup, chap, tsāp, zap, ťap, tyap, tap, trap, thip, dap, nap.
chomb, tsomb, tõmb, tromb, lab.
kham, cum, dam, lam, wām, hum.
kāy, doy, dey, pay, lāy, wāy.

alar, äpar, āwar, katar, kar, kār, kūr, khar, gar, går, gēr, gõr, căr, cir, char, cher, chor, jar, jūr, tsar (be inwardly wrathful), tsār, tsūr, zar, tār, tovar, thur, darr, dār, por, pār, pyatar, pūr, pair, phir, phukār, phyðr, bagār, bar, mathār, mar (uuite), mahār, mār, mutsar, musar, mâtr, mür, yār, yēr, rdwar, latār, lär, lūr, wathar, war, wahār, war, witsăr, wõkhar, wothar, wõphar, wur, wusar, wor, çēr, sandar, sandār, sar, sār, sör, hahar, hår, hör.

anzer, aber, dzor, bror, ader, kanzér, khander, ganzer, grāger, chaker, chinder, chộñor, chợper, tsiñor, tsöker, tayatar, tshyater, tshyqver, tshöfør, zither, zuver, cover, zojur, dokher, tạtser, tạñor, tizer, trộpor, thạzer, dõñor, dõber, dūntshor, nạñor, nõçør, nikør, nộmer, nowor, nõmer, pajer, pazer, pather, paser, pither, pugør, pūther, phaser, phụser, phuțør. bạdor, bạnzér, baler, bągør, bājar, běñar, bramer, mangør, maşor, motor, mönder, mūntsher, yater, ratshør, wader, vệzor, věñor, vyathor, vyąder, vyøper, vyąvor, wower, çübar, sạñor, sanzer, sẽzor, somber, later, hokher, hộber, homer.

ahal, khõl, gal, chal, tsal, tsyakhal, tsyall, tshal, zal, zol, tāl, dal, tal, tal, tul, tõl, thal, dal, nyangal, pal, păl, bõl, mal, lol, wal, wăl, wõlal, sambāl.

J. 1. 12

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ūyar, drav, alav, kamav, kökav, katsav, gilav, gyav, gulav, chokav, zerav, tökav, dakhav, dulav, tav, trombav, thav, dabar, dav, dogav, donav, nēchav, pākav, pyav, pinav, põrav, phālav, phětsav, phirav, manav, milav, mõlav, mõrav, ranzav, rinzav, rokav, latav, lalav, lithav, lyav, wazav, wanav, wav, vyav, wõhav, sagav, sðkhav, surav, sulav, hosav.

abasāv, arpāv, alarāv, āparāv, āvarāv, kapaļāv, kamanāv, krūv, khokhalāv, guzurān, catāv, cāv, cukāv, chāv, tsog nāv, thagūv, dulanāv, tāv, tīvarāv, trakarāv, tragonāv, trāv, thāv, dār, dogo nāv, dodarāv, daşrāv, nahāv, nāv, nyāv pachatāv, pațāv, parkhāv, parzanāv, pāv, pilanāt, prazanāv, prāv, pharkāv, badāv, bare kāv, būv, mardāv, milanāv, mutsarāv, musarāv, mãtrāv, ranzanāv, rāwarāv, lațāv, ladāv, watharāv, wahārāv, wókharāv, wudāv, wotharāv, wusarāv, cagonāv, saganāv, satāv, sandarāv, sāv, sokhanāv, hav, hesanāv.

aderāv, anzerāv, aberāv, adørāv, kạnzerāv, khạnderāv, ganzerāv, grāgørāv,chakorūv, chạtserāv,chivørāv, chọñorāv,choperāv, tsiñerāv, tsokerāv, tsomorāv, tshyațerāv, tshyqvarāv, tshộtorāv, zīļhørāv, zuvørāv, zõverāv, dakhørāv, tạtserāv, tạñorav, tizorāv, trạts@rāv, trasarāv, trợgørāv, thạzerāv, dadørāv, dõñorāv, dộbørāv, dūntshørāv, drogørāv, deşrāv, nạñorāv, načerāv, garāv nikarāv, nộmørāv, nộvørāv, nõmerāv, pajarāv, pạzerāv, pathørāv, pāsørāv, piterāv, pitherāv, puçerāv, pūtherāv, phậse rāv, phuțørāv, bạcerāv, baderāv, baderāv, bạnzerāv, balerāv, bāgørāv, bājørāv, běñorāv, brąmorāv, mạtsørāv, mạnzerāv, mąsérāv, māñarār, mộterāv, moņderāv, mõdørāv, mūnts hørāv, yatøräv, ratshørāv, lyadorāv, lükørāv, wadorāv, vệzerāv, věñorāv, vyatherāv, vyadorāv, vyaperāv, vyavørāv, wukarāv, wugørāv, wūworāv, çübørāv, sạñorāv, sệzorāv, sěñorāv, sögørāv, sötsarāv, srogorāv, hạțerāv, hạnde rāv, kấtherāv, hộkhørāv hộteorāv, hõbørāv, homorāv.

tour, tuv, duv, riv, ruv, liv, siv, suv.
kaç, krēç, pac, phes, phuc, phoç, phēç, braç, çās, sõrç.
dēs, bāș, muș, waș, çaş.

bas, as, kas, kās, khos, tsas, zos, ļas, thās, das, mus, pes, sos.
kuh, khah, goh, tsah, pih, phuh, muh, sah.

SECOND CONJUGATION.
thak, pak.
samakh, hòkh.
tag, lag, còng.
kots, khôte, pats, rūts, vyots, hots.
gatsh, (be proper).
daz, [palaz], rõz, wòpaz, sapaz.
(palat), phat, phut, rot (also 3rd).
bõd.
wat.

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