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النشر الإلكتروني

The verb pia chāv, use, has for its second singular Bened. either a chāvyakh or 12ę chāyyakh. The latter form is peculiar to the second person singular (27).

The verb ma bòv, be, become, changes its final a v to ar y throughout. Thus, qua böyyan (not qua bovyan), may it be; # era me boyyan, may it not be, God forbid ! (26). Pronominal suffixes are added in the usual way.

Thus, सध्यनय laçyan-ay, may he live for thee! Toate põsyan-ay, may he be victorious for thee!

This tense only occurs in the above verbs (26).

D. Conditional Mood.

1. PRESÉNT FUTURE Tense. This is the same as Future Indicative. An example of its use is

JE ER gæą bo-y gatshe, suh wucha-n. If I go, I shall see him. y boy is contracted from y boh, I, and way, if. The object is mentioned twice. First fully in suh, and again as a pronominal suffix (an).

2. THE PAST CONDITIONAL Tense. This tense is used if things are spoken of that might have, but have not, happened. Thus, F 97 offre sufera rūd ay pěyihe, sóch sapazihe, if there had been rain, there would have been plenty. It is conjugated as follows (viii. ii. 32). SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
1 el karah), (if) I had made. siela karahậv.
2 करहोस् karahalch,

aftsta kari hiv.

, 3 af karihē,

करहान् karahān. Notes. (1) When the last syllable contains the vowel q ä, that vowel is always modified. This is not meutioned by Içvara-kaula, but is a fact.

(2) The short i in the second person plural is i-mātrā, and modifies the preceding root vowel when possible.

Verbs ending in vowels are declined as follows, inserting # m in the first person, as in the Future Indicative.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1 at khyamah), (if) I had eaten. Bhela khyamahặv. 2 asla khyahặkh.

festą khỏy:hiv. 3 ययि khéyihe.

gia khuahận. From fa ni, take, fx di, give, and fo yi, come, we have as follows.

1st person.

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SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1 दिमहो dimahā.

feasta dimahav. 2 festa dihặkhe fafarla diyhiv.

3 fefus diyihe. feela dihận. Pronominal suffixes are added as follows :fairly karuhậ-m, (if) I or we had made myself or for

myself. stała karahı-y,

thee, or for thee. Added to aceta karaha-wo,

you, or for you. akla karahı-n,

him. *telę karaha-s,

for him. arkla karaha-kh,

them, or for them. całą karaha-m, (if) thou hadst made me, or for me. Added to atklą karah-n,

him. **lę karahı-s,

for him. singular. arala karaha-kh,

them, or for them. afegy karikyū-m, (if) you had made me or for me. Added to afiya kari hyū-n,

him. plural. অঙ্কুি karhya-s,

for him. ofrue kart hyü-kh,

them, or for them. aftty karihe-m, (if) he had made me or for me. afrita karihi-y,

2nd person

2nd person

thee, or for thee. Added to करिडेव karihe-w°,

you, or for you. singular करिडेस् karihs-s,

him, or for him. afrią karihe-kh

them, or for them.

3rd person

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3rd person

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#retag karahın-am, if they had made me or for me. Added to arolaz karahõn-ay,

thee or for thee. attaa karahặn-awe,

you or for you. plural. grelax karahõn-as,

him or for him. quelaç karahận-akh,

them or for them. Note. All the forms added to the second person are irregular; and also the suffix of the second person singular, when added to the verb in the third person singular.

The feminine impersonal verbs a 7 tsar, be inwardly angry, etc., (see pp. 16, 22, 37, 49, 54, 68 and 82) are conjugated as follows:

gfrią tsarihe-m, (if) there had been inward anger to me; (if)

I had been inwardly angry.
9 yrs asẽ tsarihe, (if) we had been inwardly angry.
gfrsta tsarihi-y, if thou hadst been
gia tearihe-we, if you had been
gfrig tsarihe-s, if he had been

afrię tsarihe-kh, if they had been
This tense may also be used in expressions like the following :-
ay afti su-y karihē, even he did it.

karihē, even he did it. That is to say, 'why did you do it? It was bis business, and he has done it already.' (35).

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APPENDIX. LIST OF KĀçmĪRĪ VERBS ARRANGED ACCORDING TO CONJOGATIONS AND

FINAL LETTERS. As the forms taken by a Kāçmiri Verb depend partly on the Conjugation to which it belongs, and partly on the final letter of its root, the following list of Verbal Roots is arranged under Conjugations, and then alphabetically according to the final letter of each root.

For the meaning of these roots, and the form of the Past and Aorist Tenses of each, the reader is referred to the List of Kāçmiri Verbs given ante, Vol. LXV, Pt. I, pp. 314 and ff.

FIRST CONJUGATION. khi, c, d, ni, họ.

khisk, chak, chik, tak, tuk, tok, thāk, thuk, dak, truk, thyak, thok, drok, phak, phuk, phâk, phrak, bak, brak, çēk, crók, suk, hyak.

jakh, lakh, likh, lēkh.

tsyang, zāg, tãg, dag, phẫg, būg, mayg, rayg, lang, lag, wung, wolang, hag.

kharac.
khãch, tach, buch, bech, much, rach, wuch, hyachh.
muຜິ້ງ. .
tsarts, nats, phits, marte, wấte, wuts.
yitsh, kãtsh, pritsh, britsh.
arz, kanz, khanz, graz, nyawāz, pāz, pūz, print, baz, bue, bõr, máz,

waz, soz.

kapaļ, kật, khat, chất, tsag, tsit, tsēt, tshat, dậy, pit, prāt, rat, lut, wat, wāt.

wuth.
kad, gand, tshand, tshād, tsãą, tad, mand, måd, lad, sed, hyad.
prin.
kat, khut, nyat, çrut, sat.
math.
ärad, gind, gund, pad, pond, mand, lad, wad, wand, vyand, såd.

an, ätshan, än (=an), køn, khan, chân, tân, tsēn, tshun, zan, zēn, asan, dõn, den, pachān, parzan, pilan, putsan, prazan, phān, man, mun, mēn, ran, lỏn, lõn, wakhan, wan, vyats han, won.

krp, khap, gup, chap, tsāp, zap, ťap, tyap, tap, trap, thip, dap, nap.
chomb, tsomb, tõmb, tromb, lab.
kham, cum, dam, lam, wām, hum.
kāy, doy, dey, pay, lāy, wāy.

alar, āpar, āwar, katar, kar, kār, kūr, khar, gar, går, gër, gör, căr, cır, char, chēr, chor, jar, jūr, tsar (be inwardly wrathful), tsār, tsūr, zar, tār, tovar, thur, darr, dār, por, pār, pyatar, pūr, pair, phir, phukār, phyðr, bagār, bar, mathār, mar (uuite), mahār, mār, mutsar, musar, műtr, mūr, yār, yēr, rāwar, latār, lär, lūr, wathar, war, wahār, war, witsār, wokhar, wothar, wõphar, wur, wusar, wõr, çēr, sandar, sandār, sar, sār, sör, hahar, hār, hör.

anzer, aber, azer, Qor, adør, kanzer, khander, gạnzor, grąger, chakor, chindar, chợñor, chopar, tsiñor, tsöker, tayatør, tshyater, tshyqvør, tshöfør, zither, zuver, zover, zojur, dokher, tạtsor, tạñor, tizer, trợpør, thạzer, dıñor, dober, dūntshor, nañor, nāfør, niker, nomer, nộwer, nõmer, pajer, pazer, pathar, pager, pithar, puçer, püther, phaser, phợser, phuțør. bạdor, banzor, baler, bągør, bājar, běñor, bramer, manzer, maşør, motor, mönder, müntsher, yater, ratsher, wadar, vězor, včñor, vyather, vyador, vyoper, vyquer, wowar, çüber, sañor, sạnzor, sệzor, somber, hater, hộkher, hõber, homer.

ahal, khõl, găl, chal, tsāl, tsyakhal, tsyall, tshal, zal, zel, tāl, dal, tal, tal, tul, tõl, thal, dal, nyangal, pal, pāl, bõl, mal, lol, wal, wăl, wõlal, sambāl.

J. 1. 12

ūyar, drav, ālav, kamav, kökav, katsav, gilav, gyav, gulav, chokav, zrav, tokav, dakhav, dulav, tav, trombav, thav, dabav, dav, dogav, donav, nēchav, pākav, pyav, pinav, põrav, phâlav, phětsav, phirav, manav, milav, mõlav, mõrav, ranzav, rinzav, go kav, latav, lalav, lithav, lyav, wazav, wanav, wav, vyav, wõhav, sagav, sokhav, surav, sulav, hasav.

abasāv, arpāv, alarāv, āparāv, āvarāv, kapaļāv, kamanāv, krūv, khókhalāv, guzurā, catāv, cāv, cukāv, chāv, tsogonāv, thagāv, dulanāv, tāv, tovarāv, trakarāv, tragenāv, trāv, thāv, dār, dogonāv, dodarāv, daşrāv, nahāv, nāv, nyāv pachatāv, pațāv, parkhāv, parzanāv, pāv, pilanāv, prazanāv, prāv, pharkāv, baļāv, bạro kāv, bāv, mardāv, milanāv, mutsarāv, musarāv, műtrāv, ranzanāv, rāwarāv, lațāv, laļāv, watharāv, wahārāv, wókharāv, wudāv, wotharāv, wusarāv, sago nāv, saganāv, satāv, sandarāv, sāv, sokhandv, hav, hesanāv.

adorāv, anzerāv, aberāv, aderāv, kạnzerāv, khanderāv, ganzerāv, grāgørāv,chakerāv, chạts@rāv,chivørāv, chợñorāv,choperāv, tsiñarāv, tsokerāv, tsomerāv, tshyațørūv, tshyavørāv, tshộțdrāv, zīļhørāv, zuverāv, zõverāv, dækhørāv, tạtserāv, tạñorāv, tizorāv, trạtsørāv, trąsérāv, trợgørāv, thạzerāv, dadorāv, dāñorāv, dộbørāv, dūntshørāv, drogerāv, deșrāv, nạñorāv, naţ'rāv, nāçerāv nikarāv, nộmerāv, nộvørāv, nõmerāv, pajørāv, pazerāv, pathørāv, pasarāv, pițerāv, pītherāv, puçerāv, pūthorāv, phậso rāv, phuțørāv, bạcerāv, baderāv, bądørāv, bạnzerāv, balerāv, bāgørāv, bājarāv, běñorāv, brạmorāv, matsarāv, mạnzbrāv, mạşerāv, mañarāt, mộtørāv, mönderāv, moderāv, mūntshørāv, yateräv, ratshørāv, lyadorāv, lūkørāv, wadørāv, vězerāv, věñerāv, vyath'rāv, vyądørāv, vyąperāv, vyaverāv, wukerāv, wugørāv, wowerūv, çüberāv, səñorāv, sệzérāv, sẽñorāv, sợgørāv, sợtsørāv, srogorāv, hạtorāv, hạndo rāv, kấthorāv, hộkhørāv hộtsrāv, hõberāv, homerāv.

tsuv, tuv, duv, riv, ruv, liv, siv, suv.
kaç, krēç, paç, phěc, phuc, phóg, phēç, braç, çāç, sõrç.
dēs, bāș, muș, waș, çaş.
abas, as, kas, kās, khos, tsas, zos, ļas, thās, das, mus, pls, ses.
kuh, khah, goh, tsah, pih, phuh, muh, sah.

SECOND CONJUGATION.
thak, pak.
samakh, hokh.
tag, lag, còng.
kots, khote, pats, rots, vyats, hots.
gatsh, (be proper).
daz, (palaz], roz, wopaz, sapaz.
(palat), phat, phut, rot (also 3rd).
bod.
wat.

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