« السابقةمتابعة »
krt, krat, gyamaț, guraţ, tshyat, tshoț, tot, naț, pat, pīt, prækhot, mot, rõt (also second), wot, hat.
kāļh, kuth, krēth, toamath, zēth, tyath, ļoth, drēth, nộth, path, poth, brẽ¢h, mẹth, vuath, gith, crith, hith.
ad, pēd, bad, bud, mõnd, 20 d, lyad, wud.
and, tund, thad, pyad, bad, brād, wud, syad, cod (this is a better spelling than çöddh).
āman, kän, kyann, krhan, gan, guman, chan, chonn, tshậtshan, tan, tilan, nan, pākan, pran, ban, basan, bākhan, byann, lahan, lahan, wogan, wun, çigan, san, syann, hān, hūman, hon, hen.
kāmp, kup, nập, pap, paşp, yāp, wup (optionally in Pluperfect), vyap, grap (optionally in Pluperfect), hap.
ader, yir, kahar, kātsar, kāyar, kāwar, kur, khokhar, khor, gir, gowar, cökhar, tsar (increase), tshar, zingar, zongar, zozar, thahar, dar,
tür, trakar, tror, thar, thấthar, thār, dar, dõdar, dūr, dör, nēr, pir, por, phahar, bahar, bãbar, bigar, modar, mõr, lyadar, lör, vyądør, vyalar, vyasar, wukar, wudar, wobar, sakhar, sāgar, syander, sir, sõsar, hakar, hander, har, her.
al, kal, kumal, kõl, khal, gāgal, gēl, grāgal, chokal, zal, tal, dyal, tambal, tēl, nil, pil, piçal, põl, prazal, phấphal, bal, mamal, mokal, wigal, wözal, wõtal, wòcal, wòl, çahal, hal, hậkal, hil, hol.
chiv, tshyav, zuv, nav, srav.
On Indeclinable Particles in Kāçmiri.—By G. A. GRIERSON,
C.I.E., PH.D., I.C.S.
[Read January, 1899.) Içvara-kaula does not formally deal with particles in his grammar, but here and there he refers to them, and the following is a collection of his scattered rules. It in no way pretends to be a complete account of Indeclinables.
Emphatic and indefinite particles have been described by me in Vol. LXVII, Part I, pp. 88, and following:
The following two conjunctions are also there mentioned. They are repeated here for the sake of completeness.
a to, and (iv. 178). E.g., or a suh te tseh, he and thou.
fa ti, also (iv. 179). It is also used instead of a te with plurals. Thus, EF for for suh ti, tsoh ti, he also, you also. Atfafa for guy for gry mahanivi ti gupan ti āy, both the men and the cattle came. In the last sentence we cannot use i to.
The negative particle is a ne, not (viii. ii. 19); but ordinarily negative forms of the verb are used, as described under the head of adverbial verbal suffixes. In other words, the a ne is usually compounded with the verb as a suffix. Thus, yea chu-s-ne, I am not.
The probibitive particle # me is only used with the Simple Imperative (viii. ii. 19).
# afrą me karin, let him not make.
Hafra me kariv, make not ye.
G. A. Grierson - On Indeclinable Particles in Kāçmiri. [No. 1,
Instead of Ħ me and ha mate, we may use HT mā and har mata respectively (20). Thus, AT mā kar, Hal apa matā karte.
Other vocative particles may also be added. Thus, AT 4T mal kar, मसा कर mash kar, मतवा कर्न mataba karts, मना कर्त matasa karts, and so on (20). See forms of address given in Vol. LXVII, Part I,
pp. 92 and ff.
With other tenses of the imperative a ne is used (19). Thus, aftfa a karizi ne, you should not make. #fefe a kariziha no, you should not have made.
Ar mā is used before or after a verb, to indicate a question in hesitation (viii. i. 29). Thus,
Arla At karān mā chuh, or Al Fatra mā chuh karān, or
AT IT gy mā karān chuh, is he making ? (I.e., see if he
he is not making it?)
TĘ AT T bõh mā kare, shall I make ? The particle are tāñ, or asiq tāñat, is used in asking a question, when the speaker is really in doubt as to whether there is anything to ask (viii. i. 26). Thus,
#18 Aig *gkyāh tāñ wanun, did he say anything? Here
the speaker did not notice at the time what the man said, and afterwards recalls the fact, and, being in doubt, asks
the question ?
how much ?
alta tāñat. Thus, 19 avq aqa kyāh tām wạnun. 43 dyathe. This added to an interrogative word couverts it into an intensive one (viii. i. 27). Thus,
ar kur, or a kano, when ?
पठ कर चाव dyatha kur av, or पठ कन चाव dyathi rani āv, he
he came a long time ago. #15 kyðh, what? 48 RI dyathe kyāh, a great deal. fa kūt", how many ? uz ata dyathe katı, a great many,
So v afa dyatha kan', for a long time.
aft ry karihê hay, if he had made.
af The Fi karihē-s hay, if he had made it. With the same tense' if not’is represented by nay (34). Thus, aft ar karihē nay, if he had made it ; oferir rūd nay pěyihē, if rain had not fallen.
These particles can also be attached to the subject of the verb (35). Thus, gry aftf suh-ay karihē, if he had made; faar? atata tim-hay karahặn, if they had made : 6 aftf su-nay karihē, if he had not made,
*l bo-y khyamahą, if I had eaten.