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On Indeclinable Particles in Kāçmiri.-By G. A. Grierson,

C.I.E., PH.D., I.C.S.

[Read January, 1899.] Içvara-kaula does not formally deal with particles in his grammar, but here and there he refers to them, and the following is a collection of his scattered rules. It in no way pretends to be a complete account of Indeclinables.

Emphatic and indefinite particles have been described by me in Vol. LXVII, Part I, pp. 88, and following.

The following two conjunctions are also there mentioned. They are repeated here for the sake of completeness. }

a to, and (iv. 178). E.g., TT a suh te tgoh, he and thou.

for ti, also (iv. 179). It is also used instead of a to with plurals. Thus, ut fag for suh ti, tseh ti, he also, you also. Hefafa for yra för Q14 mahanivi ti gupan ti āy, both the men and the cattle came. In the last sentence we cannot use a to.

The negative particle is a ne, not (viii. ii. 19); but ordinarily negative forms of the verb are used, as described under the head of adverbial verbal suffixes. In other words, the a ne is usually compounded with the verb as a suffix. Thus, ya chu-s-no, I am not.

The probibitive particle # me is only used with the Simple Imperative (viii. ii. 19).

A mfą me karin, let him not make.
# at me kar, make thou not.

Hafta me kariv, make not ye.
With the Modified Imperative At male is used (20). Thus,
Ha afraq mate karitan, let him not make.

94 G. A. Grierson — On Indeclinable Particles in Käçmīrī. [No. 1,

Instead of # me and ha mate, we may use t mā and har mata respectively (20). Thus, At 7 kar, far and matā karta.

Other vocative particles may also be added. Thus, #TT AT mabā kar, मसा कर mass kar, मतवा कर्न mataba karte, मनसो कर्म matasa karte, and so on (20). See forms of address given in Vol. LXVII, Part I, pp. 92 and ff.

With other tenses of the imperative a ne is used (19). Thus, after a karizi ne, you should not make. aftfog a karizihē no, you should not have made.

Ar mā is used before or after a verb, to indicate a question in hesitation (viii. i. 29). Thus,

करान मा कुह karān chuh, or मा कुह करान mā chuh karan, or

#Tatia m ā karān chuh, is he making ? (I.e., see if he
is not making it, or if he is making it or not, or perhaps

he is not making it?)
afą ar karyon mā, did he make ?
TF AT æft suh kari, will he make ?

E AT a běh kare, shall I make ? The particle aie tāñ, or aisa tāñat, is used in asking a question, when the speaker is really in doubt as to whether there is anything to ask (viii. i. 26). Thus,

WIE NIE aga kyān tāñ wanun, did he say anything ? Here

the speaker did not notice at the time what the man said, and afterwards recalls the fact, and, being in doubt, asks

the question ? HT NIET gia kar tāñ āv, did he come at any time? If so,

when ? A ni ug kūtu tāñ dyutun, did he give anything ? If so,

how much? arą tām, or qraq tāmat, may be used instead of niş tāñ, or

algta tāñat. Thus, *1 arą aga kyāh tām wạnun. ·dyathe. This added to an interrogative word converts it into an intensive one (viii. i. 27). Thus,

at kur, or a kane, when ?

vzat 4ra dyathe kur āv, or va 19 19 dyathe kane āv, he

he came a long time ago. I kyõh, what? I dyatha kyāh, a great deal. fa kūti, how many ? vafa dyathe kati, a great many,

So ya afa dyatha kan', for a long time.
The usual word for 'if' is qq ay, but, with the Past Conditional
(viii. ii. 33), rq hay may be used instead of qy ay, after the verb.
Thus,-

afri fy karihê hay, if he had made.
atala ray kurahận hay, if they had made ;

aftge Fi karihe-s hay, if he had made it. With the same tense 'if not'is represented by azi nay (34). Thus, af any karihē nay, if he had made it; pot off rūd nay pěyihē, if rain had not fallen.

These particles can also be attached to the subject of the verb (35). Thus, try fie suh-ay karihē, if he had made; far? atala tim-hay karahặn, if they had made : 67 afts su-nay karihē, if he had not made,

met -y khyamahā, if I had eaten.

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