« السابقةمتابعة »
tshyann, [pun], sapan.
wup, crap. (Both these also optionally 3rd Conj. in Plup.).
pray, lay, way.
khar, tar, [prār], phar, phēr, [phōr], mar (die), sōr.
gal, tsal, ḍal, dōl (or ḍõl), phal, phõll, mēl.
[naç] [tōs], dos, pōṣ, maṣ, rūṣ.
ās, khas, phas, bas, [bās], las, lōs, was, [wobas].
zi, pi, yi.
grak, camak, tsok, thik, dok, nik, lōk, wok.
thag, tang, drog, sŏg, srŏg.
ats, grõts, tsõts, tshõts, trats, mõts, lēts, çrōts.
tēz, paz, bāwaz, braz, ranz, laz, wuz.
krt, krat, gyamaṭ, guraț, tshyaṭ, tshot, tõţ, naţ, pat, pit, prakhot, mõṭ, rōt (also second), wot, hat.
kāṭh, kuṭh, krēṭh, tsamaṭh, zēṭh, ṭyath, tōṭh, drễṭh, nặth, path, pōṭh, breth, meth, vyaṭh, çiṭh, çrith, hậṭh.
ad, pēd, bad, bud, mond, red, lyad, wud.
tūran, prāṇ, ran, wuṣṇ.
chat, zot, tat, mat, rat, lot, wonnat, sot.
and, tund, thad, pyad, bad, brad, wud, syad, çod (this is a better spelling than çŏddh).
āman, kān, kyann, kṛhan, gan, guman, chan, chŏnn, tshậtshan, tan, tīlan, nan, pākan, pran, ban, basan, bākhan, byann, lahan, lahan, wogan, wun, gigan, san, syann, hàn, hãman, hôn, hen.
kặmp, kup, nập, pap, paṣp, yāp, wup (optionally in Pluperfect), vyap, grap (optionally in Pluperfect), hap.
kob, gob, tyamb, ḍub, tyamb, phab, ramb, lüb, çüb.
garm, tsam, tham, nam, bram, wõm, çam, sam, ham.
ader, yir, kahar, kātsar, kāyar, kāwar, kṛr, khokhar, khōr, gir, gōwar, cōkhar, tsar (increase), tshar, zingar, zöŋgar, zozar, thahar, dar,
tūr, trakar, trōr, thar, thậthar, thār, dar, dõdar, dūr, dōr, nēr, pir, pōr, phahar, bahar, babar, bigar, moḍer, mōr, lyader, lōr, vyader, vyalar, vyasar, wukar, wudar, wõbar, sakhar, sãgar, syander, sir, såsar, hakar, handor, har, her.
al, kal, kumal, kōl, khal, gāgal, gēl, grãgal, chōkal, zal, ṭal, ḍyal, tambal, tēl, nil, pil, piçal, põl, prazal, phaphal, bal, mamal, mokal, wigal, wõzal, wotal, wŏçal, wōl, çahal, hal, hakal, hil, hol.
chiv, tshyav, zuv, nav, srav.
awas, dos, tras, pis, pras, ras, lis, vis, wõlas, wòs.
On Indeclinable Particles in Kāçmiri.—By G. A. Grierson,
C.I.E., PH.D., I.C.S.
[Read January, 1899.]
İçvara-kaula does not formally deal with particles in his grammar, but here and there he refers to them, and the following is a collection of his scattered rules. It in no way pretends to be a complete account of Indeclinables.
Emphatic and indefinite particles have been described by me in Vol. LXVII, Part I, pp. 88, and following.
The following two conjunctions are also there mentioned. They are repeated here for the sake of completeness.
te, and (iv. 178). E.g., a suh to tsah, he and thou.
fa ti, also (iv. 179). It is also used instead of a to with plurals. Thus, fa a fa suh ti, tsch ti, he also, you also. wefafa fa qua fa ◄ mahanivi ti gupan ti ay, both the men and the cattle came. In the last sentence we cannot use a to.
The negative particle is no, not (viii. ii. 19); but ordinarily nega tive forms of the verb are used, as described under the head of adverbial verbal suffixes. In other words, then is usually compounded with the verb as a suffix. Thus,
The prohibitive particle
Imperative (viii. ii. 19).
chu-s-no, I am not.
m is only used with the Simple
fame karin, let him not make.
me kar, make thou not.
afa me kariv, make not ye.
With the Modified Imperative male is used (20). Thus,
af mat karitan, let him not make.
Instead of me and respectively (20). Thus,
mate, we may use Ħ mã and Har mată
mā kar, amatā karta.
Other vocative particles may also be added. Thus, kar, मर्सा कर masā kar, मतबा कर्त matabā karte, मनसो कर्त matasā karte, and so on (20). See forms of address given in Vol. LXVII, Part I, pp. 92 and ff.
With other tenses of the imperative ne is used (19). Thus, केरिज़ि ☛ karizi na, you should not make. fcfa a karizihē no, you
should not have made.
Imã is used before or after a verb, to indicate a question in hesitation (viii. i. 29). Thus,
करान् मा बुद्ध् karān mā chuh, or मा बुह करान् mā chuh karān, or mā karān chuh, is he making? (I.e., see if he
is not making it, or if he is making it or not, or perhaps he is not making it?)
कर्यान् मा karyān mā, did he make?
a aft suh ma kari, will he make?
aaay bŏh mā kara, shall I make ?
tāñ, or a
tāñat, is used in asking a question,
when the speaker is really in doubt as to whether there is anything to ask (viii. i. 26). Thus,
ale ang dgg kyãh tāñ wạnun, did he say anything? Here
the speaker did not notice at the time what the man said, and afterwards recalls the fact, and, being in doubt, asks the question ?
kar tāñ āv, did he come at any time? If so,
ga ala aga kūtu tāñ dyutun, did he give anything? If so, how much?
ताम् tām, or तामत् tāmat, may be used instead of ताज़ tān, or ন'म़त् tāñat. Thus, क्याड् ताम् वनुन् kyāh tām wanun.
dyath. This added to an interrogative word couverts it into an intensive one (viii. i. 27). Thus,
कर् kar, or कन kane, when ?
अठ कर छाव् dyatha kar āv, or अठ कन याव dyathe kane āv, he he came a long time ago.
kyōh, what?dyatho kyāh, a great deal.
fa kṛti, how many?fa ḍyath kṛti, a great many,
Sofa dyaṭhe kani, for a long time.
The usual word for 'if' is ay, but, with the Past Conditional (viii. ii. 33), hay may be used instead of ay, after the verb. Thus,
aft e karihē hay, if he had made.
af karihē-s hay, if he had made it.
नय् karihē nay, if he had made it;
rain had not fallen.
nay (34). Thus,
fa rúd nay pěyihē, if
These particles can also be attached to the subject of the verb (35). Thus, gey aftè suh-ay karihē, if he had made; facelą tim-hay karahặn, if they had made: 4 af
que bo-y khyamaha, if I had eaten.
su-nay karihē, if he had not made,