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severance of the Indian connection of the Uighur kingdom of Khotan, the use of the official Kharoạthi script survived for any great length of time. Its forms, as seen in the Dutreil de Rhins Manuscript and on the Indo-Chinese coins, are much alike, and both are identical with that form of it wbich prevailed under the Kushana (Yuechi) kings in India, that is, in the first and second centuries A.D. Though its form remained practically unchanged for a century or two longer in its home-land, it is very improbable, to judge from the parallel case of the lndianBrāhmi, that this would have been the case in a foreign country like Khotan. It is not probable, therefore, that the Indo-Chinese coms can be placed later than the end of the second century A.D. They show, as already remarked, four, if not five, different regal names. Four or five reigns, at an average of 20 or 25 years, occupy a period of about 100 years. This brings us to, at least, the year 173 A.D., as none of the coins can have been struck before 73 A.D. The initial date is certain; the terminal date must be near the end of the second century. The period 73–200 A.D., therefore, is a safe date to give to the Indo-Chinese coins of Khotan.
Within that period, the Chinese records mention the names of four or five kings of Khotan: (1) Kuang-te in 73 A.D., who first submitted his country to the overlordship of the Chinese ; (2) Tangt'sian in 129-131 A.D., (3) Kian, (4) 'An-kue, son of Kian, who succeeded his father in 152 A.D., and (5) Shansie in 220-226 A.D.82 None of these names agrees with any of those on the coins ; but they rather look like true Chinese names, so that it would seem that the kings bore duplicate names, native Turki and Chinese. At that early period, as the Chinese relate, the kings of Khotan were devoted Buddhists, and as such, it may be surmised that they bore names which were the Uighur equivalents of Indian Buddhistic terms. Dharma being a common prefix of many Buddhistic names, Gugra might be its Uighur equivalent. A long list of ancient Khotanese royal names, all beginning with Vijaya, is given by Rai Sarat Chandra Das from Tibetan sources.28 If this list can be trusted, Gugra might represent Vijaya.
My knowledge of Chinese is very small, and the only numismatic aid, available to me, is the Catalogue of Chinese Coins in the British Museum by Dr. Terrien de Lacouperie, and an article on Chinose Coinage in the Transactions of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic
28 See Abel Remasat's Histoire de la Ville de Khotan, pp. 3, 6, 8, 15, 17.
Society, Part II for 1848–1850, by C. B. Hillier. I hope that this disadvantage under which I am labouring may be accepted as a sufficient excuse for the imperfections of my descriptions of the Chinese coins in the collection.
With reference to numismatic evolution, Chinese round coins fall into three periods. In the first period, they have no inscriptions whatever. In the second period, they have a legend on the obverse, consisting at first of two symbols, placed to the right and left of the central hole, and afterwards of four, there being two additional symbols above and below the hole: the reverse is blank. In the third period, they have inscriptions both on the obverse and reverse sides, generally consisting of four symbols on each side, distributed on the four sides of the central hole. The first advance to a double-sided inscription consisted either in repeating the obverse legend on the reverse, or in placing on it one new symbol, in most cases a numeral indicative of the value of the coin. There are found occasional anticipations as well as survivals; but roughly speaking, the course of numismatic evolution appears to have been as above explained. This is amply borne out by the coins in our collection.
In point of chronological sequence the coins of the collection also happen to fall into three distinct periods : ancient coins of the 1st to the 3rd centuries A.D., medieval coins of the 7th to the 13th centuries, mostly of the two dynasties of the T'ang (618-907 A.D.) and the Sung (960-1279 A.D.), and modern coins of the 18th and 19th centuries, issues of the ruling Manchu dynasty. The circumstance of the two large gaps of several centuries each is curious, but perhaps altogether accidental, The presence of the numerous coins of the T'ang and Sung dynasties is probably accounted for by the fact that during the periods of their rule, as shown by the Chinese records, 26 an exceptionally lively intercourse was kept up between China and Khotan.
The total number of Chinese coins in the collection is 148. Among these there are 43 ancient, 77 medieval, and 28 modern coins. All the ancient and many of the mediæval coins were found in the desert around Khotan. The modern ones came from Khotan itself. They all formed part of M. 2, 3, 4, 6, 9; most of the ancient ones belong to M. 2.
24 See British Museum Catalogue, pp. xxvii and 319. Examples of repetition are ibidem, Nos. 1727-1731, 1786-1790, 1877, 1880. Examples of the addition of numerals are Nos. 1767–1778, 1807-1814, of other symbols, Nos. 1782, 1815, 1816, 1818, 1820, 429-436. Exceptional anticipations of a double-sided legend are Nos. 1752, 1753. Examples of survivals of a two-symbol legend are Nos. 426-438, 1852-1855. 86 See Abel Remusat's Histoire de la Ville de Khotan, pp. 67 ff.
J. 1. 7
All the ancient coins are of copper, except one which appears to be of lead. All the medieval and modern coins are of a species of bronze or brass.
(a) Ancient Coins.
large, 11 specimens, size 0-7-0:9", weight 21:5-31 grs.
11:5–15.5 grs. small, 5 Two good specimens are shown in the British Museum Catalogue, large, No. 180 (p. 340), and middle, No. 407 (p. 399), weighing 38 and 19 graius respectively. Most of the specimens in our collection are not in an equally good condition. Their weight is much lighter, their shape is very irregular (some nearly square), and their rim in many cases is very narrow (down to is of an inch). They have clearly been subjected to much clipping.
This class of coins appears to have been current under both Han dynasties, the Former or Western as well as the Later or Eastern. Those of our collection must belong to the later period, i.e., 25–220 A.D., as Khotan came into closer contact with China only from about the middle of the first century A.D.
(2) Coins with an obverse legend of two symbols. (Pl. II, 2, 3). The coins of this class number 16. They consist of the following:
(a) With the legend Wu-Tchu or 'Five Tchus'; 9 specimens ; five well preserved (Pl. II, fig. 2), weighing 33-38 grains and measuring 1 inch; four considerably rubbed and clipped, weighing 15–25.5 grains and measuring 0.75-1.0 inches. Compare British Museum Catalogue, Nos. 315, 316, 398-403 (pp. 361, 396).
(6) With the legend Ho-tsiuen or Spring of goods '; 2 specimens, weighing 34 and 20 grains, and measuring 0.875 and 0.8 inches; too indifferently preserved to be figured, but like British Mus. Cat, No. 365 f. (p. 334).
(c) With unread legend, see Plate II, fig. 3; apparently lead; one specimen ; weight 78:5 grs. ; size 1.0625".
The Wu-tchu currency was introduced by the Han dynasty, and the Ho-tsiuen currency, by the usurper Sin Wang Mang (9-22 A.D.). Both currencies continued into the period of the Later Han dynasty, 25-220 A.D., and the specimens of our collection must be ascribed to that period,
(6) Medieval Coins.
(1) Coins with an obverse legend of four symbols.
(Pl. II, 4-18 and Pl. III, 6, 7.) The coins of this class number 76. They consist of the following currencies :
(a) With the legend K'ai-yuen-tung-pao, or Current money of the K'ai-yuen period.' This period comprised the years 713–741 A.D., under the Emperor Yuen-tsung of the T'ang dynasty.86 There are two coins of this period; weight 49 and 50 grs.; size 1". Plate II, 9.
(6) With the legend K'ien-yuen-tchung-pao, or Current money of the K'ion-yuen period.' This period comprised the years 758–763 A.D., under the Emperor Su-tsung of the T'ang dynasty.87 Of this period there is a very large number of coins in the collection ; altogether 45. They are of three different sizes :
large, 12 specimens; size 1.0625"'; weight 71-136 grs. (Pl. II, 7). middle, 3
48:5-49-5 grs. (Pl. II, 6). small, 30
0.875" ; 23-41:5 grs. (Pl. II, 5). Many of these coins were in M. 3; some in M. 2.
(c) With the legend Ta-li-yrien-pao, or Principal money of the Ta-li period.' This period comprised the years 763–780 A.D., under the Emperor Tai-tsung II of the T'ang dynasty. There are ten coins of this period, of three different sizes :
large, 4 specimens ; size 0.9375"; weight 45.5–59.5 grs. (Pl. II, 4). middle, 5
0.875"; small, 1
; These belong to M. 2, M. 4, M. 6. A Chinese manuscript petition dated in this period is in the collection of MSS.
(d) With the legend Che-tao-yuen-pao or 'Principal money of the Che-tao period.' This period apparently comprised the years 984–998 A.D., under the Emperor Tai-tsung (976–998 A.D.) of the Sang dynasty.28 There is one coin of this period; legend in “running hand”; weight 58 grs., size 1". Figured by Hillier, No. 124 (p. 63). From M. 2.
(e) With the legend King-t'i-yuen-pao, or Principal money of the King-t'i period.' This period apparently comprised the years 998–1008 A.D., under the Emperor Chin-tsung I (998–1023 A.D.) of the Sung dynasty.89 There is one coin of this period; weight 36 grs., size 0.9375". Plate II, 16; and in Hillier, No. 126 (p. 63). From M. 2.
37-51 grs. 36 gis.
28 See Abel Remusat's Histoire de la Ville de Khotan, p. 70. 87 See ibidem, p. 70. 28 Compare ibidem, p. 88. The preceding period was 976. 983 A.D. 39 Compare ibidem, p. 86. The following period was 1008-1116 A.D.
(f) With the legend T'ien-fing-tung-pao, or Current money of the T'ien-çing period.' This period comprised the years 1023–1034 A.D., under the Emperor Tin-tsung of the Sung dynasty.80 There is one coin of this period; weight 55 grs.; size l". Plate II, 18.
(9) With the legend Kia-yeu-tung-pao, or Current money of the Kia-yeu period.' This period comprised the years 1056-1064 A.D., under the Emperor Jin-tsung of the Sung dynasty.82 There are two coins of this period; weight 47.5 and 55 grs.; size 1". Plate II, 15.
(h) With the legend Che-ping-Yuen-pao or Principal money of the Che-ping period.' This period comprised the years 1064–1068 A.D., under the Emperor Ying-tsung of the Sung dynasty.88 There is one coin of this period; weight 52.5 grs., size l”. Plate II, fig. 8; and in Hillier No. 138 (p. 68). From M. 2.
(i) With the legend Yuen-fung-tung-pao or Current money of the Yuen-fung period.' This period comprised the years 1078-1085 A.D., under the Emperor Chin (Shin)-tsung II of the Sung dynasty.88 There are two coins of this period; one with the legend in “running hand,” the other, in ordinary script; weights 35 and 325 grs., size 1" and 0.9375". Plate II, 12, and Hillier No. 140, p.
From M. 2. (k) With the legend Yuen-yu-tung-pao or Current money of the Yuen-yu period.' This period comprised the years 1086-1093 A.D., under the Emperor Che-tsung of the Sung dynasty.84 There are three coins of this period; two with the legend in “running hand,” and one with it in "seal-characters." Weight of the former, 60-5 and 39 grs. ; size 0-9375" and 0.875"; Plate II, fig. 13. Weight of the latter, 68.5 grs. ; size 0-9375" ; in Hillier, the 2nd under No. 141 (p. 71). From M. 2 and M. 6.
(1) With the legend Chao-cing-yuen-pao or 'Principal money of the Chao-çing period.' This period comprised the years 1094-1097 A.D., under the Emperor Che-tsung of the Sung dynasty:36 There are two coins of this period, one with the legend in " running hand," the other with it in “seal characters.” Weight, 54 and 51 grs. ; size l" and 0.9375" respectively. Plate II, fig. 17 and fig. 14 ; in Hillier, No. 142 (p. 72). From M. 2.
(m) With the legend Tsung-ning-tchung-pao or Weight-money of the Tsung-ning period.' This period comprised the years 1101
80 See ibidem, p. 90. 31 See ibidem, p. 91. 32 Compare ibidem, p. 91. 83 Compare ib., pp. 92, 95, 97. The preceding period was Hi-ning 1068-1077 A.D. 84 See ibidem, p. 97. 86 See ibidem, p. 98.