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1106 A.D., under the Emperor Hwei-tsung (1101-1126 A.D.) of the Sung dynasty.86 There is one coin of this period; weight 176 grs.; size 1-416". Plate III, 7 (inverted), and Hillier No. 145 (p. 74). From M. 9.
(n) With the legend Kuang-ting-yuen-pao or 'Principal money of the Kuang-ting period.' This period was current under Shin-tsung in the State Hear, apparently in the 13th century; see Hillier, No. 194 (p. 104). There is one coin of this period; weight 585 grs.; size l′′. Plate II, fig. 10. From M. 2.
(0) With the legend King-hing-tung-pao or Current money of the King-hing period.' The exact date of this period appears to be unknown; see Hillier, No. 308 (p. 154); it should be somewhere in the time of the T'ang or Sung dynasties. There is one coin of this period; weight 41.5 grns.; size 0.9375". Plate III, No. 6. From M. 2.
(p) With unread legends. There are three coins of this kind, which I cannot identify in Hillier's article. They all have the term tung-pao which refers them to the time of the T'ang or Sung dynasties. One of them is shown on Plate II, fig. 11. Weights 39.5, 51-5, 58 grs. ; size 0.9375-1". From M. 2.
(2) Coins with obverse and reverse legends. (Pl. II, fig. 19). There is only one coin of this class, which I have not been able to identify in Hillier's article. I read the obverse legend Li-yung-tung-pao or Current money of the Li-yung period.' The reverse has only one symbol chen or 'a bazar.' In Hillier's article I find this symbol only on the reverses of certain coins of Yung-ming-wang and Chang-hin-chung (Nos. 254 and 259, pp. 136 and 139), who are said to be princes at the close of the Ming dynasty, i.e., 1644 A.D. Weight 55 grs., size 0.9375".
(c) Modern Coins.
The total number of modern coins is 28. They fall into the following classes:
(1) Coins with Chinese legends on both sides. Of these there are altogether 24, of the following reigns :
(a) With the obverse legend Kang-hi-tung-pao or Current money of the Emperor Kang-hi,' who reigned from 1661-1722 A.D. Of his reign there are two coins, with the same reverse legend of two words in Manchu characters pao tsiuen or 'source of money,' i.e., mint Peking. Weight 70 and 50 grs.; size 1.0625" and 0.875". Plate II, 20.
(b) With the obverse legend K'ien-lung-tung-pão, or 'Current money of the Emperor K'ien-lung,' who reigned 1735-1796 A.D. Of
36 Compare ibidem, p. 99. The following period was Tai-Kuen 1107-1111 A.D.
his reign there are 14 coins. The reverse has varying Manchu legends of two words. Weight 44-70 grs., size 0·875-1". Plate II, 21.
(c) With the obverse legend Hien-fung-tchung-pao, i.e., 'Weightmoney of the Emperor Hien-fung,' or Hien-fung-yuen-pao, i.e., 'Principal money of Hien-fung,' who reigned from 1850-1861 A.D. Of his reign there are eight coins. One is of bronze, very large, and has a trilingual reverse legend, in Chinese (above and below the hole) tung 100 or 'value 100 cash,' in Persian (to the right) or (mint) 'Yārkand,' and in Manchu (to the left), see Plate II, 30. The other seven coins are of brass, of two different sizes, and with a bi-lingual reverse legend. The larger one (Plate III, 5) has in Chinese (above and below) tung 15 or 'value 15 cash,' the smaller ones have tung 10 or ' value 10 cash.' In addition all seven coins have a Manchu legend (right and left). (Plate II, 22).
Very large, 1 specimen; size 2.0826"; weight 576 grs.
(2) Coins with Persian legends on both sides.
There is one coin
of this kind, of copper. Plate II, No. 23. It is made in the Chinese fashion, but is probably a coin struck during one of the more recent periods of Muhammadan independence of Kashghar. The legend is not fully read.
سید غازي راشيدين خان
ضرب (دار السلطنة ) كوجا
The reverse (over saltanat) apparently bears the date 1283 Ḥ., nearly obliterated, which would be 1866-1867 A.D., or the second year of Yaqub Beg's revolt,87 and with which the number 2 on the obverse would agree. Kūjā, which is quite distinct, may be intended for kuchā (Kuchar), but the words in brackets are uncertain; and I am unable, with the means at my command, to identify the ruler's name recorded on the obverse. Weight 48 grs.; size 1 inch. From M. 2.
(3) Coins or Tokens with a Chinese legend on one side only. There are three of these pieces which are perhaps rather tokens than coins. I can obtain no information on them. They are shown on Plate II, fig. 25. They first bears the symbol for tsien or 1000; the two other symbols I do not know. They are of bronze, and weigh 89.5, 80.5 and 108 5 grs.; size 0.83". From M. 2.
87 See Dr. Bellew in Sir T. D. Forsyth's Report of a Mission to Yarkand in 1837, pp. 208-213.
With the exception of two doubtful specimens, probably all the coins of this class, numbering 36, have come from Western Turkestan (Samarkand, Tashikend, etc.). They belong to G. 4, and were briefly reported on by me in my letter to the Under-Secretary, Government of India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, dated the 20th November, 1897. The two exceptions belonged either to M. 2 or M. 6, and come from one of the buried sites lying to the north of Khotan.
(a) Imitations of Bactrian Coins.
There are seven of these; all silver tetradrachms. They imitate the coins of Euthydemus and Heliocles. The former reigned in Bactria about 210-190 B.C.; the latter, who appears to have belonged to a rival family, about 160-120 B.C. During the reign of the former, Saka tribes occupied the Northern provinces of the Bactrian empire between the Oxus and Yaxartes. During the reign of the latter, the Sakas, being driven out by Kushan (or Yue-chi) tribes, occupied Bactria south of the Oxus.38 Their chieftains imitated the coins of their contemporary Bactrian rulers. These coins can be easily recognized by their degradation, both in point of design and of weight.
The best of the seven coins are two in imitation of Heliocles, of his well-known type: Bust of King on obverse, and Standing Zeus on reverse, as in the British Museum Catalogue, plate vii, fig. 2. One, which weighs 231 grains (full weight 264), measures 1.25", and is fairly good in design (with ringlet for omikron), though much worn, may possibly be a genuine coin of Heliocles. It has the monogram of Brit. Mus. Cat., No. 4 (p. 21). The other weighs only 219 grains (size 1.25"), and, as the semi-barbarous reverse shows, is clearly a Saka imitation : but the curiosity of it is, that while it has an imitated Heliocles reverse, it has retained an apparently genuine Eukratides obverse; see Plate III, 10. Eukratides (c. 190-160 B.C.) was the predecessor, and perhaps father, of Heliocles. The imitated Heliocles reverse is very fairly done, it has the full Greek legend, but with a dot for omikron, and a rather rude figure of Zeus. Its monogram is M. Both this and the first-mentioned coin must be early imitations, and may be referred to about 150 B.C.
The remaining five coins are imitations of Euthydemus, of his well-known type with Head of King on obverse, and Sitting Heracle
88 See the outlines of Bactrian history in the Introduction to the British Museum Catalogue, pp. xviii, ff.
on reverse, with club resting on his knee. One of them, which is the heaviest, weighing 170 grains and measuring l′′, has the king's portrait as shown in Brit. Mus. Cat., pl. ii, fig. 1-4. It had also an entirely Greek legend, which, however, is almost totally obliterated. The other four coins, which only weigh from 155 to 144 grains, show the king's face as portrayed in Brit. Mus. Cat., pl. i, fig. 11, (also Ariana Antiqua, pl. i, figs. 2-4, and Rapson's Indian Coins, pl. i, fig. 18, in the IndoAryan Encyclopedia). Both types of face, however, are very fairly imitated, see Plate I, Nos. 2 and 3. One of the four coins, which weighs 144 grains (size 1′′), had an entirely Greek legend, now badly effaced; but sufficient traces remain to show that it had the name of Heliokles struck over that of Euthydemus. The two names were not struck accurately in the same line, consequently M (of Euthydemus) is still seen slightly projecting over the line of Heliokles, of which latter. name K is fully, and Al partially recognizable; as shown in the annexed woodcut; see Plate III, 11. The other three coins are bilingual, having the king's name in native Bactrian letters, while the title in Greek characters is seen in its usual place to the right, or behind the back, of the Sitting Heracles; see Plate I, Nos. 2-4. Of the Greek title ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ only the three letters ΣΙ> or Σιν (i.e., with inverted A) together with traces of A before and E after them are clearly legible.89 Coins of this description, that is, with the title to the right and the name in Bactrian letters to the left of Heracles, appear to have been found previously. Two such coins, from the collection of General Fox (if I understand the account correctly) are described by Mr. Thomas in his edition of Prinsep's Indian Antiquities, vol. I, p. 32. But, so far as I know, none of them has ever been figured. Similar coins, but with the Greek and Bactrian legends transposed, that is, the title in Bactrian and the name (Euthydemus) in Greek, have been published. One, in rather good preservation, has been figured by Sir A. Cunningham in the Numismatic Chronicle, vol. IX (1889), pl. xiii, (also in Rapson's Indian Coins, pl. i, 19). Another series of similar coins has the whole legend in Bactrian characters, see Numismatic Chronicle, vol. IX., pl. xiii, 6, also Ariana Antiqua, pl. i, 9, 10, Indian Antiquities, pl. ii, 6. It is probable that, as Sir A. Cunningham says (Num. Chron., vol. IX, p. 307), the oldest imitations are those with Greek legends only, next come those with mixed legends of rude Greek and Bactrian letters, the latest are those with Bactrian characters only. In the second class,
39 On the photographic platos they are not so distinct as on the original.
I suppose, those coins which preserve the Greek fashion of arranging the legends, and show the title on the right in Greek, and the name on the left in Bactriau, may be considered to be older than those which show the mixed legends in the reversed position, i.e., the name in Greek on the left, and a Bactrian legend on the right, the latter also being a name. Accordingly the bilingual coins of the present series may be referred to about 130 B.C. It would also seem, if Dr. Gardner's theory of the change of standard is correct (see Brit. Mus. Cat., Introd., pp. lxvii, lxviii), that these coins are didrachms of the Persian standard (full weight 160-170 grains), such as began to be minted in Heliocles' reign.
Seeing that the Bactrian legend 10 on our coins takes the place of the Greek name, it seems reasonable to assume that, like the latter, it runs parallel to the Greek title and must be read from the outside of the coin. This assumption is certainly supported by the general appearance of the characters, which, after the Semitic fashion must be read from the right to the left. They are shown in the subjoined woodcut.
The third, fourth and fifth letters of No 1 legend have a distinct resemblance to the Kharōṣṭhi letters ja, a and ka; and at first I was disposed to take the second letter as a crude Kharōşṣṭhi ra, and to read the whole as a mutilation of (ati)raja Aka(ṭhukleyasa). But the
40 In order to prevent any misunderstanding I may explain that I use the term Bactrian in the definite sense of referring to Bactria proper, and the immediately adjacent northern provinces of what was once the Bactrian Kingdom. wish to suggest (the suggestion only to be taken for what it may be worth) is that corresponding to the modified Aramaean script current to the South of the Paropamisus and known as Kharoṣṭhi, there may have been another modified and allied Aramaean script current to the north of that range, of which the letters on the coins in question may be witnesses. This suggestion refers only to the script whether the language hidden in the legends of the coins was a species of old Turki or old Iranian is a point on which I hazard no opinion. For a similar suggestion, if I understand it rightly, see Isaac Taylor's The Alphabet, Vol II, pp. 232, 233.
J. 1. 8