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(3) Orcha; 1 coin; silver; 1 Rupee; mint Ürcha; date 1211 Ḥ. (=1796 A.D.). See Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. LXVI, p. 267, Plate XXXII, fig. 29.
(4) Sikh State; 10 coins, of different varieties, all copper:
(a) 2 coins; obv., star; rev., legend, date 1894 Samrat (=1838 A.D.); mint-mark, leaf. Plate II, fig. 29.
As in Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. L, Plate IX, 68 (p. 90).
(b) 2 coins; obv., mint Amritsar, with mark of leaf; rev., Gurmukhi legend, and mark of sword.
(c) 1 coin; with mint-mark of leaf on reverse; as in ibidem, Plate VIII, 53, but in very indifferent condition; weight 122 grs.; size 0.83".
(d) 2 coins; legends in Persian characters; obv., mint-mark, leaf within of jalūs; rev., zarb; but both mint and date
lost; weight 188 and 86.5 grs. ; size 0·916" and 0.75′′.
(e) 1 coin, with Gurmukhi legends, similar to ibidem, Plate VII, 52. Weight 159.5 grs. ; size 0·916".
(f) 2 coins; obv., mint-mark leaf, and mint on one khiṭah Kashmir, on the other Jammu; rev., legend Nānak Shāh with a leaf-ornament; weight 209-5 and 1215 grs.; size 0 9" and 0.8".
(5) Nepal; 1 coin; a modern paisa of the present reign; date illegible.
(6) Jammu; 1 coin; weight 90 grs., size 07′′; obv., Nāgari legend; rev., Persian legend with date 1937 Sam. (= 1880 A.D.).
(7) Kashmir; 6 coins of two sizes, all extensively clipped, with Nāgari on obverse and Persian on reverse, and leaf and sword as mint-marks:
(a) large, 1 coin, size 0.75"; weight 845 grs.; date 191*
Sam. (=188* A.D.).
(b) small, 5 coins; size 0.6-0.7"; weight 47-48 grs.; dates
(8) Afghan; 6 coins, of different varieties; all copper:
(b) 2 coins; apparently also of Timur Shah, but name lost,
(c) 1 coin, ascription uncertain; obv., curved sword in ornamental ellipse; rev., zarb Kashmir sanah 2 (?); weight 86 grs.; size 0·9′′.
(9) Unidentified coins:
(a) large; 6 copper; 3 square, 3 round; with most fragmentary legends; weight 169.5-83 grs.; size 0·7-0·66′′.
(b) small; 24 copper, all round, with most fragmentary legends; weight 46'5-4 grs. ; size 0·333-0·5625".
X. MODERN EUROPEAN.
A Russian copper coin; got from the house of a Khotan merchant; obv., Imperial arms, rev., Imperial monogram within laurel crown, and date 1758 A.D.; weight 802 grs., size 1.66". Plate II, fig. 32.
X. SEALS, INTAGLIOS, CAMEOS, ETC.
The total number of these objects in the collection is sixty-five. They are of a great variety, in point of material, size, shape, form, and engravement. There are also ten unfinished pieces (all of stone) which had clearly been cut to make seals, but which bear no engraving of any kind. Most of these objects come from the Takla Makan desert, and belong to M. 2, M. 3, M. 4, M. 6, M. 9, G. 7 and G. 10. A few, belonging to G. 4, come from Western Turkestan.
With regard to material, there are of
brass or copper, bronze
In size, they vary very widely; from 1.25" to 0.25" (Pl. III, fig. 21)
With regard to form, among the seals there are three made in the form of the ordinary signet-ring, to be worn on the finger. One of them is complete (Pl. III, 27 and Pl. XIX, 3); in the case of the other, two portions of the ring are missing. All three are of brass, and belong to M. 2. There are also five pieces, all of stone, which are cut in the form of a signet-ring, but their ring-portion is solid, with a hole drilled through it, in order to be worn on a string (Plate III, 62 and Plate XIX, 2). All these solid rings belong to G. 4, and probably came from Western Turkestan. The usual form of the seal, however, is a thin, flat plate, to the back of which is attached a small perforated peg for the passage of the string on which it is worn (Plate XIX, 4). All the seals of this kind are from the Takla Makan desert. They are also all of brass or copper, except one (Pl. III, fig. 29) which is made of steatite. One seal, of bronze, is furnished with two flaps (Pl. III, fig. 22 and Pl. XIX, 6).
Among the intaglios, there are two with a high, conical back (Plate III, 63 and Plate XIX, 7). They are both of glass, and came from the Takla Makan desert. All the rest are flat pieces of stone or glass, of the usual form, with a rounded or planed back.
Two of the objects (Pl. III, 65 and 73 and Pl. XIX, 8) appear to have merely served as ornaments, as they are provided with the remains of what seems to have been a nail. These are from the Takla Makan. One object (Plate III, 23 and Plate XIX, 5) seems to be one of a set of dice used in divination. This, also, comes from the Takla Makan desert.
With reference to the matter engraved, it consists either of some writing, or some figure, mostly human or animal, or some ornamental design. Particulars, so far as definable, will be found in the following detailed description. The figures on the Plate are all full size.
Plate III, No. 18. Round intaglio of black glass +3 engraved with Arabic characters, apparently 'afiyat Nadir or "Success of Nadir." From G. 4.
No. 19. Oblong flat brass seal, with perforated peg; face engraved with what looks like writing in Persian characters (....). From M. 2. No. 20. Obverse and reverse of a square amulet, of ivory; * 48 thickness 4th of an inch, through which runs a fine string-hole; both
48 For the identifications marked * and † I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. C. L. Griesbach, C.I.E., and Dr. Fritz von Nötling respectively, of the Geological Survey of India. Mr. Griesbach informs me (19th January, 1899), that "the stones might all have come from Badakshan or Bokhara. Lapis lazuli comes certainly from Badakshan, and spinel is found in Shignan and other places on the upper Oxus, also at Tagdallak east of Kabul."
faces engraved with what looks like writing. From the Takla Makan; consignment unknown.
No. 21. Minute lozenge-shaped intaglio of bronze, engraved with minute writing, apparently Arabic, unread. From G. 10.
No. 22. Square bronze seal; back furnished with two flaps, apparently for fixing to a handle (Pl. XIX, 6); face engraved with what seems to be writing. From M. 3.
No. 23. (Pl. XIX, 5). An oblong piece of brass, with four equal sides measuring inches, the ends accordingly being th of an inch square; perforated right along its long axis, and bearing engravements on all its four long sides. One side shows a dot; the side next to it has two strokes; these would seem to be intended for the numbers 1 and 2. On the other two sides one would expect the numeral signs for 3 and 4; and so they may be; but they are very indistinct, and, curiously enough, seem to suggest human standing figures: that on the third side being a long-robed woman with shield and spear; that on the fourth side, a man standing to the left before a fire altar, as on Kanishka's coins. But these resemblances may be deceptive, the engravements being excessively corroded. The piece is probably one of a set of dice, such as are still used in the present day for purposes of divination. See the remarks below.
No. 24. Elliptical intaglio; Grecian; engraved with nude figure of a man standing to front, with his wrists behind his back, bound to a pillar (Prometheus ?).
No. 25. Elliptical intaglio; Indian; engraved with bust of a woman, showing ancient Indian fashion of hair-dress.
No. 26. Elliptical intaglio; Grecian; engraved with seated draped figure of woman to left; perhaps Tyche with cornucopia in left and sceptre in right hand.
No. 24 to 26 were found "near Khotan," and are those "three pieces of yellow crystal of an oval shape" mentioned on p. xxxii of the Introduction. Mr. Macartney only sent me impressions taken in sealing
From these plaster-casts were made by me for the photographic plate. This accounts for the want of clearness in the figures.
No. 27. Elliptical signet-ring of brass. (Plate XIX, 3). Engravement too much worn to be clearly recognised; apparently a woman seated to left on a wicker-stool. From M. 2.
No. 28. Obverse and reverse of a square amulet, made of serpentine; thickness th of an inch, perforated with a string-hole. Obv., centaur to right, holding some object in each uplifted hand; below a four-rayed star, like x. Rev., lion to right, with open mouth threatening a man in attitude of supplication before him; above tail three dots. From M. 3.
No. 29. Round seal or button, of steatite *, with perforated prominence on back, engraved with rude radiate sun-face. From M. 3. No. 30. Round intaglio of red cornelian, engraved with the head of a woman. From G. 10.
No. 31. Round intaglio of black glass †, engraved with the head of a man (Parthian ?). From G. 4.
No. 32. Elliptical intaglio of red cornelian; Grecian; Pallas to right, in long robe and helmet with spear and shield. From G. 4.
No. 33. Similar to No. 32. Apparently draped female figure to left. Original gone astray.
No. 34. Square flat brass seal, with perforated peg, showing kneeling figure of a man to left, with uplifted right arm, before some small indistinct object (fire-worshiper ?). From M. 2, found at Aq Sapil.
No. 35. Square brass flat seal, with broken, perforated peg at back, engraved with two men, standing to front, but facing one another, both in the same attitude, left arm uplifted, right arm suspended From M. 2, found apparently in Kök Gumbaz.
No. 36. Elliptical intaglio of very thin brown glass, convex, about one-half broken off and missing. Engravement, nude figure, apparently a monkey, with feathered helmet, holding up a branch in left hand. From G. 4.
No. 37. Round intaglio, of blue glass *; showing draped (female?) figure, seated cross-legged to front, with uplifted arms, holding in left hand a wreath (or sun ?), in right hand a crescent. Posture similar to that of king or deity on Indo-Scythian and Gupta coins; compare Ariana Antiqua, Plate, xviii, 4, 5; British Museum Catalogue, Pl. xxix, 4. From M. 3.
No. 38. Elliptical intaglio, of bird to right, wearing helmet or cap.
lapis lazuli*, showing head of a From G. 10.
No. 39. Oblong intaglio of sardouix *, very deep red, with whitish surface on the engraved side; showing nude dancing girl, wearing very heavy girdle and anklets, standing to right, and presenting some lengthy object in both forth-stretched hands, in posture similar to soldier presenting arms. From G. 10.
No. 40. Round intaglio, of glass or obsidian,* showing a goat or long-horned gazelle, walking to right. From G. 10.
No. 41. Square flat bronze seal, From M. 2. No. 42. Square flat brass seal, showing a crude calf, walking to left. found at Aq Sapil.
hare sitting to right.
with perforated peg, showing a
with perforated peg (broken), Similar to No. 43. From M. 2,