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and Ih respectively, of the text of the First Set are imprinted, arranged in two columns, at right angles to one another, one running parallel to the longer, the other with the shorter side of the book. The former stands near the outer, the latter near the inner edge of the page. The outer column consists of two impressions each of the recensions Ig (11. 9, 11, 13, 14) and Ih (11. 17, 18, 19); while the inner column consists of four impressions of the recension Ig. The two pages are shown in the marginal diagram, the formula of the Fifth Set
being indicated by abcd, and those of the Page 4.
First Set, by ccc (=C=Ig) and eee (=E=Ih) respectively. The circumstance of the two mutilated formulas of the First Set appearing here in this unexpected and purposeless way seems to render the hypothesis of a forgery almost impossible, both with regard to the whole book No. VIII, and to the blocks for the recensions Ig and Ih.
Sixth Set. (Plate XIII and Pl. XIV, fig. 1.) This Set comprises three books. Its peculiarity is that it is not appropriated to one particular text only, but presents a collection of several texts. What was found occasionally as a rare exception in the other sets—the introduction of a few impressions of an alien text into the midst of its own proper one-forms in the Sixth Set its main feature.
Of the three books comprised in it, No. I gives the texts of the Second and Fifth Sets. No. II gives the texts of the Second, Fourth and Fifth Sets, and No. III those of the First, Second, Fourth and Fifth Sets.
No. I. Book. (Plate XIV, fig. 1.) Belongs to M. 7. Found at Aq Talā Tūz. Size, 11 x 8". Number of forms 30. Paper, variety IIIb. Greatly damaged by exposure to wet; also some large fatty stains and burns. Print almost illegible. Bound with three nails ; guards being large rhomboid pieces of flat, thin, ornamental copper, as shown in fig. 1 of Plate IV.
As a rule, the pages of this book present the texts of the Second and Fifth Sets. There are only 6 exceptional pages (out of a total of 114 printed ones), viz., 6, 43, 94, 95, 116, 117, which give the text of the Fifth Set alone.
The text of the two sets are printed in three columns on each page, running parallel to one another and to the longer side of the book, and standing upright and reversed on alternate pages. It may be also noted that what has been indicated in the facsimiles (Plates X and XII) as the first line of the formulas of the two texts, stand, as a rule (though not always), alongside of one another, pointing to the conclusion that these two lines occupy the same position in the respective formulas, that is, that both are the head-lines (as assumed in the facsimiles) or both the foot-lines. Of the three columns one gives the text of the Fifth Set, and two give that of the Second Set.
The column containing the text of the Fifth Set always occupies the inner side of a page, and consists of seven, or more usually eight, impressions of the formula of that set. But as the space is barely sufficient to accommodate all eight, one line of the 8th repetition is often omitted ; this seems to be invariably line 3, as indicated in the facsimile (Pl. XII); which fact also points to line 1 being really the head-line.
The two columns containing the text of the Second Set, always occupy the outer side of a page, and consist each of four impressions of the formula, so that there are altogether eight impressions of it on each page. The formula here printed is only a portion of the text of the Second Set, viz., formula C, or lines 9-13 of column I of that text (Pl. X).
There is one exception to the arrangement above explained. On p. 7 there are only two columns, standing at right angles to each other, the outer one of which consists of four impressions of the text of the Second Set. The two arrangements are shown in the subjoined diagram ; abcdef denoting the text of the Fifth Set, and 1 2 3 4 5 6 that of the Second Set. Regular.
Exceptional. (1) abodef 123 123) (1) abcdef
(2) abcdef o com
(4) abcdef (5) abcdef 123 123 (5) abcdef (5, 6)
(3) (6) abcdef 456 4563
(6) abcdef a (7) abcdef 123 1237 (7) abcdef
or (4) (8) abcdef 456 456%
(8) abcdef a The correspondence in the arrangement of the texts of the two sets suggests that they may also correspond in their scripts and their meaning. We should have here a bi-script, and perhaps a bi-lingual, book.
J. I. 17
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6
2 3 1 2 3 1 2
No. II. Book.
Belongs to M. 7. Found at Aq Talā Tāz. Size, 11 x 8". Number of existing forms 28; but originally it must have been 30, as the two outside forms, forming the covers, are missing. Paper, variety IIIb. Corners rounded off, somewhat similar to those of book No. VIII of the First Set. Condition similar to that of No. I. Bound with three twists
Contains the text of the Second, and Fifth, as well as that of the Fourth Sets; on alternate forms; commencing with the latter. That is, the text of the Fourth Set is found on forms 1, 3, 5, etc. ; tbat of the Second and Fifth Sets on forms 2, 4, 6, etc.
The latter texts, on their own forms, are arranged exactly as in book No. 1; only as the space is insufficient, a portion of those impressions of the formula (C) of the Second Set, which are nearest the outer edge of the page, is omitted; on two pages (93 and 96) they are omitted altogether.
The text of the Fourth Set is printed in three columns on each page, running parallel to the narrower side of the book, and consisting each of two impressions of the formula which accordingly is repeated six times on every page. The columns keep throughont the same direction. In fact the arrangement of the text is exactly the same as in No. IV of the Fourth Set; see the diagram on p. 87. There are, however, four exceptional pages. On page 107 there are two columns, each consisting of four impressions of the formula (altogether eight repetitions), and Page 106.
running parallel to the longer side of the book. ခ qb On pages 81 and 84, the arrangement is the same,
except that there is only one column in the middle ૦૧ )
of the page. On page 106, as shown in the marginal diagram, the two arrangements are combined, there
being two columns standing at right angles to each 390
other, the outer consisting of three, the inner of four impressions of the formula, and running parallel to the shorter and longer sides of the book respectively.
No. III. Book. (Plate XIII.)
Belongs to M. 8. Found at Kiang Tūz. Size, 13x11". Number of forms uncertain, as the outside leaves are missing, the book, in its present condition, beginning and ending with a printed page ; but the existing number of leaves is 81. Paper, variety IIIc. Many of the leaves torn, and otherwise damaged by fatty stains and burns. Print often barely legible. Bound with three twists of paper.
Contains the texts of the First, Second, Fourth, and Fifth Sets. Those of the First and Second Sets never occur complete. Portions of them only are found, and always standing separately. Of the First Set the formulas If, Ig, and Ih (i.e, A, C, E mutilated) only are found; of the Second Set only the formulas A, B, D and E. In the distribution of these texts, no particular order is observable. Sometimes the text of a set occupies a whole page by itself; at other times, two or three (never all four) texts are combined on one page. This will be best seen from the Table of analysis of the pages, given below.
If a single text occupies a page by itself, it is always printed in 3 to 5 columns, generally running parallel to the longer side of the book, and consisting of 4 to 6 impressions of the formula, according to the size of the latter. See below the diagrams of pages 8, 9, 11, 12, 59, 60. If a single text occupies several consecutive (from 4 to 12) .pages, the columns always stand upright and reversed on alternate pages.
If several texts together occupy the same page, they are arranged in the most varying order. No principle that may have guided the printer is observable. The subjoined diagrams illustrate this; the arrangements shown are only a few out of a much larger number. The formulas of the Fourth and Fifth Sets are indicated by a b c and 123 respectively; those of the First and Second Sets by If, 1g, I h, and A, B, D, E respectively.
Page 4. Page 5. (Pl. XIII.) Page 6. Page 7. A4IVSAIIfIfih IhIf Ig Ig Ig Ig Ig
Ig Ig Ig Ig Ig
Ig Ig Ig Ig Ig
Ig 19 Ig Ig Ig
Ih 公分 If
Ig Ig Ig Ig Ig AYVAI Ifih 17SSIS
Ig Ig Ig Ig Ig
1h 4 If 61 lh
Page 164. 123 123
bi Ih < If 19 IBI
Ig b1 61
Ig bI 61
Ig to bI 61
Ig < 61 61
If 123 123
with reference to the frequency of occurrence of the several formulas and their combinations. The result is shown in the subjoined Table. The formulas of the Second Set (A, B, C, D), except where stated otherwise, occur only once on the page. Formulas.
Pages of Occurrence. Frequency. Sets IV.
11-18, 23-27, 30, 39-42, 51-58,
67-70, 75-82, 87-90, 92, 94,
140-150, 155-162 Total 80 Set V
28, 29, 140, 141 Sets IV and V 139, 142
2 Set IV and Set Ig 48, 49
2 Set IV and Set Ih 91