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texts. It is also used, as we have seen, in the description of Kasmir given by the T'ang annals.
The name Ullola from which the present Volur (vulgo "Woolar') seems to be derived, is found only in one passage of Jonarāja's Chronicle and in a single modern Māhātmya.% Skr. ullola can be interpreted to mean'turbulent' or '[the lake) with high-going waves.'8 Those who have experienced the sensation of crossing the lake with a strong wind, will readily allow the appropriateness of this designation. Yet it is impossible to dismiss altogether the suspicion that the name which seems wholly unknown to the older texts, may be only a clever adaptation of the Kaśmiri name Volur or its earlier representative. It is certainly curious that in modern Māhātmyas we meet with Ullola as a name for the Vulgar Pargana, the genuine ancient designation of which is Holadā. Jonarāja in his commentary on Srikanthacarita, iii. 9, uses Ullola as a paraphrase for Mahāpadma. 74. From an early date various legends seem to have clustered
around this, the greatest of Kaśmīr lakes. The Legends of Mahā.
Nilamata relates at length how the lake bepadma Nāga.
came the habitation of the Mahāpadma Nāga.6 Originally it was occupied by the wicked Nāga Şaďangula who used to carry off the women of the country. Nila, the lord of Kaśmir Nāgas, banished Şadangula to the land of the Dārvas. The site left dry on his departure was occupied by a town called Candrapura under King Visvagaśva. The Muni Durvāsas not receiving hospitable reception in this town, cursed it and foretold its destruction by water. When subsequently the Nāga Mahāpadma sought a refuge in Kaśmir and asked Nila for the allotment of a suitable habitation, he was granted permission to occupy Candrapura. The Mahāpadma Nāga thereupon approached King Viśvagaśva in the disguise of an old Brahman and asked to be allowed to settle in the town with his family. When his prayer was agreed to he shewed himself in his true form and announced to the King the approaching submersion of his city. At the Nāga's direction the King with his people emigrated and founded two Yojanas further west the new town of Visvagaśvapura. The Nāga then converted the city into a lake, henceforth his and his family's dwelling place. A recollection of this legend still lives in popular tradition, and the ruins of the doomed city are supposed to be sighted occasionally in the water.
1 For detailed references see Rājat, iv. 593 note. % See Jonar. (Bo. ed.) 1227–30; Dhyānesvaramāh. 30, 33. 3 See BÖHLER, Report, p. 9. + See Vitastamāh. v. 48; Haridraganesamih. 6 See Nilamata, 976-1008, and BÜHLER, Report, p. 10,
Another legend has found a lengthy record in Kalbaņa's narrative of King Jayāpida's reign, iv. 592 sqq. The Nāga Mahāpadma being threatened with desiccation by a Dravidian sorcerer, appeared to the King in his dream and asked for protection. As a reward he promised to show a gold mine to the King Jayāpida agreed to the Nāga's prayer. Curiosity, however, induced him to let the Draviļian first try his magic on the lake. When the waters had been dried up so far that the Nāga and his dependents were seen as buman-faced spakes wriggling in the mud, the king interfered and caused the lake to be restored. The Nāga, however, resented the insult aud showed to the king only a rich copper ore instead of the gold mine.
With reference to a Purāṇic legend the Mahāpadma is sometimes identified with the Näga Kāliya who was vanquished by Krşņa. As the foot of the god when touching the Nāga's head made lotuses (padma) appear on it, Mahāpadma is treated by Kaśmirian poets as another form of Kāliya,?
75. Of the streams which fall into the Volur lake besides the Lower affluents
Vitastā, the stream of the Bandopor. Nāla is of Vitastā.
the most cousiderable. It drains tho range
between Mount Haramukh and the Trāgabal Pass and forms a small Delta of its own to the north of the lake. Its ancient name is Madhumati. It is repeatedly mentioned in the Rājatarangiņi in connection with the route leading to the Dard territory, but must be distinguished from another, smaller Madhumati which flows into the Kişangangā near the Sāradātirtha.
The outflow of the lake's waters is at its southwest corner about two miles above the town of Sõpūr. The latter is the ancient Suyyapura, founded by Suyya and commemorating his name. If we may judge from the position of the town and the words used by Kalbaņa in another passage, it appears probable that the operations of Avantivarman's great engineer extended also to the river's bed on this side of the lake.
About four miles below Sõpūr the Vitastā which now flows in a winding but well-defined bed, receives its last considerable tributary within Kasmir. It is the Pohur which before its junction has collected the various streams draining the extreme northwest of the Valley.
1 Compare Srikanthac. iii. 9; Jonar. 933, and my note Rājat. v. 114.
% See Rājat. vii. 1179 and note 1171 ; also viii. 2883; Nilamata 1259 899., 1398, etc.
8 See Rajat. v. 118 note.
4 V. 104 : “ Trained by him, the Vitastă starts rapidly on her way from the basin of the Mahāpadma lake, like an arrow from the bow."
This portion of the country figures but little in Kalhaņa's narrative ; hence we find in the Rājatarangiņi no reference to the Pohur or any of its affluents. The old name of the river is uncertain. Jonarāja in a passage which is found only in the Bombay edition, calls this river Pahara ; the Māhātmyas vary between Prahara and Prahāra. Of the side-streams the Māvür (map • Maur') flowing through the Mạchipõr Pargana is named in the Nilamata as Māhuri. The name of the Hamal stream is identical with that of the Pargaņa through which its course lies, the ancient Samālā.3
About 18 miles from the point where the Vitastā leaves the Volur, it reaches the entrance of the gorge of Bārāmūla. Through this defile we have already before followed the course of the river. At Bārāmūla navigation ceases. After passing with a violent current the ravine immediately below the town, the river, so placid within the Valley, turns into a large torrent rushing down in falls and rapids.
Section VII.-SOIL AND CLIMATE OF THE VALLEY.
76. Our survey of Kaśmir rivers has taken us along that great
flat of river alluvium which forms the lowest Alluvial Plateaus
and most fertile part of the Valley. We (Udar).
must now turn to the higher ground of the Vale which consists of the peculiar plateaus already alluded to.
The genuine Kaśmiri term for these plateaus is udar, found in its Sanskrit form as uddāra in the Chronicles. Another modern designa. tion of Persian origin now often used, is karēwa. The word uddāra is twice found as an ending of local names in the Rājatarangiņi, while the latter Chronicles use it frequently in designations of well-known plateaus. An earlier Sanskrit term no longer surviving in use, is sūda, originally meaning 'barren waste ground. Kallaņa employs it when speaking of the well-kuown Dāmadar Udar.6
The Uďars of the Kaśmir Valleys are usually considered by geologists to be due to lacustrine deposits. They appear either isolated by lower ground around them or connected by very gentle slopes with spurs descending from the mountains. Often the tops of these plateaus seem almost perfectly flat, forming table lands of varying dimensions. They rise generally from 100 to 300 feet above the level of the ravines and valleys which intersect them, and through which the streams from the mountains and their own drainage find their way to the Vitastā. Most of the Uďars are found on the south-western side of the Valley, stretching from Supiyan to Bārāmāla. But they also occur across the river on the north-eastern side of the Valley, and at both extremities of the river-flat in the south-east and north-west.
1 See Jonar. (Bo. ed.) 1150, 1152; Vitastāmāh. xxvii. 2; Svayambhūmāh.
6 See Gusikõdàāra, the Uủar of Gūs near Rāmuh, Sriv. iv. 465, 592, 596 : Dämo. darodļūra, the Dāmadar Udar, Sriv, iv. 618; Laulapuroddára, Fourth Chron. 175. eto.
6 See Rajat. i. 156 note.
Owing to the inferiority of the soil and the difficulty of irrigation, the Uďars show a marked difference in point of fertility from other parts of the Valley. Those which slope down from the foot of the mountains have been brought under cultivation with the help of watercourses conducted over them from the higher ground behind. Most of these irrigation-channels are, no doubt, of ancient date, and some are specially mentioned in the Chronicles. To other Uủars, particularly those which are entirely isolated, water could not be brought. These are either barren wastes covered with low jungle or if cultivated, yield only precarious crops owing to the uncertainty of the rainfall.
Some of the Uủars, owing to their position near the Vitastā or for other reasons, are sites of importance in the ancient topography of Kaśmir. Such are the plateaus of Mārtāṇda, Cakradhara, Padmapura, Paribāsapura. Another, the “Udar of Dāmodara,' plays an interesting part in the legendary lore of the country. All these will be duly noticed in the next chapter.
77. Climatic conditions are so closely connected with a country's Kaśmir climate.
topography that the few old notices and
references which we have regarding those of Kaśmir, may fitly find mention here.
The only distinct account of the Kaśmir climate is given by Albērūni. He clearly indicates the reason why Kaśmir is exempt from the heavy Monsoon rains of India proper. When the heavy clouds, he explains, reach the mountains which enclose Kaśmir on the south, “the mountain-sides strike against them, and the clouds are pressed like olives or grapes.” In consequence “the rain pours down and the rains never pass beyond the mountains. Tberefore Kaśmir has no varşakāla, but continual snowfall during two and a half months, beginning with Māgha, and shortly after the middle of Caitra continual rain sets in for a few days, melting the snow and cleansing the earth. This rule has seldom an exception; however, a certain amount of extraordinary meteorological occurrences is peculiar to every province in India."
I See India, i. p. 211.
That this description is on the whole as accurate as Albārūni's other data regarding Kaśmir, will be easily seen by a reference to the detailed statements of Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Eliot. What chiefly characterizes the climate of Kaśmir as against that of the Indian plains, is the absence of a rainy season and the equally marked absence of excessive heat. The moderate temperature of the Kaśmir summer is ensured by the high elevation of the Valley, and has at all times been duly appreciated by its inhabitants as well as its visitors.
Kalhaņa already proudly claims this exemption from the torments of a fierce sun as one of the favours accorded to his country by the gods.* His enthusiastic description of a Kaśmir summer passed “ in the regions above the forests” shows that he was no stranger to the charms of that season in the alpine parts of the country. More than once he refers to the sufferings which the heat of an Indian summer outside the Valley inflicts on Kaśmirian exiles. Even in the hill regions immediately to the south of Pir Pantsāl the hot season with its accompanying fevers has often proved disastrous to the Kaśmirian troops employed there.”
On the other hand we find also the rigours of a Kaśmir winter duly illustrated by the Chronicle's narrative. We may refer to the description of the heavy and continued snowfall which followed Sussala's murder in Phālguna of 1128 A.D., the freezing of the Vitastā in the winter of 1087-8 A.D., etc. The graphic account of Bhoja's flight to the Upper Kişangangā Valley shows us in full detail the difficulties which attend a winter-march over the snow-covered mountains to the north of the Valley. Nor do we fail to be reminded otherwise of the great differences in climate which are implied by the varying altitudes of Kaśmir localities.?
Exceptionally early snowfall in the autumn such as saved the garrison of the frontier fort on the Dugdhaghāta Pass, has always been known and dreaded even low down in the Valley. The danger it represents for the rice crops is illustrated by Kalhaņa's account of the famines resulting from such premature snowfalls.8
1 See LAWRENCE, p. 24 sqq.
4 Compare vii. 970; viii. 1634, 1830, 1836, 1865; regarding the fever-season of Rājapuri and neighbouring districts, my note viii. 1873.
6 Rõjat. viii. 1376 899.; 1434 sqq. ; vii. 592.
6 See viii. 2710 899. It must be remembered that as much as forty to sixty feet of snow falls in a severe winter on the higher ranges around Kaśmir; see also viii. 411.
7 Compare vii. 916; viii. 2511; ii. 138. 8 See ii, 18 sqq.; viii. 2449.