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Khakhas have until very recent times worthily maintained the reputation which their forefathers enjoyed as marauders and turbulent hillmen.

North of the Vitastā Valley and as far as the Kişangangā we now find the Bombas as the neighbours of the Khakhas to whom they are closely related. It is probable that the Karnāv district was held by them already in old times. Kalhaņa seems to comprise them, viii. 3088, under the designation of Khaśa.

The upper Kişangangā Valley above Sardi was in old days already as at present inhabited by Dards (Skr. Darad, Dārada) who are often referred to by Kalhaņa as the neighbours of Kaśmir on the north. Their seats extended then too probably much further to the north-west, where they are now found in Citrāl, Yāsin, Gilgit and the intervening regions towards Kaśmir. Megasthenes already knew them in the Upper Indus regions. Kalbaņa relating events of his own time speaks of Mlecchas further to the north. These might have been Muhammadanized Dards on the Indas, and beyond.2

The regions immediately to the north-east and east of Kaśmir were held by the Bhauttas. We have already seen that these represent the people of Tibetan descent, the modern But, of Drās, Ladākh and the neighbouring mountain districts.8

1 See Rājat, i, 317 note. % See note viii. 2762-64. * See above, $ 58.

CHAPTER IV.

POLITICAL TOPOGRAPHY.

Section 1.-FRONTIERS OF ANCIENT Kaśmir.

81. Our account of the political topography of ancient Kaśmir may conveniently open with a survey of its frontiers. These agree so closely with the natural boundaries of the Valley that we have already had occasion to trace them when dealing with the mountain ranges enclosing the latter. It will however be useful to supplement our information regarding these frontiers by a brief notice of the territories which lay beyond them and formed the neighbours of the Kasmir kingdom in Hindu times.

Beginning in the south-east we have first the Valley of KĀşTerritories 8. E. of

THAVĀȚA, the present Kaştavār (* Kishtwar' of Kaśmīr.

the maps) on the upper Cināb. It is mention

ed by Kalhaņa as a separate hill state in the time of Kalasa. Its Rājās who were Hindus till Aurangzeb's time, practically retained their independence until the conquest of their territory by Mahārāja Gulāb Singh.

The hill-district of Bhadravāh lower down on the Cināb is once named in the Rājatarangiņi as Bhadrāvakāśa. Its Rājās were tributary to Cambă in recent centuries. This was probably the case also in earlier times as we do not find a ruler of Bhadrāvakāśa referred to in Kalhaņa's lists of hill Rājās.

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The Rājās of Cambā, the ancient CAMPĀ, on the other hand figure often in the Kaśmir Chronicle. Their territory has since early times comprised the valleys of the sources of the Rāvi between Kāngra, the ancient Trigarta, and Kāşțbavāța. The ancient Rājpūt family which rules this hill state to the present day, often intermarried with the Lohara dynasty which reigned in Kaśmir.

To the west of Campā and south of Bbadrāvakāśā lay the chiefship of VALLĀPURA, the modern Ballāvar. Its rulers are repeatedly referred to in Kalhaņa's narrative and retained their independence as petty hillchiefs till the rise of the Jammu family early in this century. 'Ballāwar' was known also to Albērāni.

Of the political organization of the hill-territories between Vallāpura in the south-east and Rājapuri in the north-west we have no distinct information. The Hindu inhabitants of this tract including Ballāvar call themselves now Dogrās and their country Dugar. This name is traditionally derived from Skr. *Dvigarta,but this term is nowhere found in our historical texts and has probably been created for the sake of an etymology in analogy of the ancient Trigarta. The original of the name seems to be Durgara.

It is very probable that the region of the lower and middle hills between the limits indicated was already in old times divided into a number of small chiefships. Of these some eleven seem to have existed up to the time of the extension of the Sikh power into the Panjāb Kõhistān. They were all absorbed in the growing state of Jammu which was originally one of them.

Among these small hill-chiefs of limited territory but ancient descent, we have probably to class the Țbakkura Dengapāla on the Cināb who gave his daughter to the pretender Bhikṣācara in marriage.6 Also the Rājā of KĀNDA must probably be located in this hill tract.? Other Țhakkuras in this region are mentioned as levying blackmail on Prince Mallärjuna when on his march to Kaśmir from the plains.8 Immediately at the foot of the Bānohāl Pass in the territory of VIŞALĀȚĂ we find the castle of a 'Khasa lord,' who gave shelter to Bhikşācara and at the time

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6 See CUNNINGHAM, Anc. Geogr. pp. 133 sqq., where a useful synopsis of the hill-states in the central portion of the Panjāb Kõhistān is given.

o See Rājat. viii. 554 sqq.
7 See note vii. 590.
8 viii. 1989 sqq.

was evidently independent. Temporarily the Khaśas of the hills immediately south of the Pir Pantsāl Range may have acknowledged the suzerainty of strong Kaśmir rulers. But during the greatest part of the period which is known to us from historical sources, they appear to have held their own and rather to have levied subsidies, i.e., blackmail from the Kaśmir rulers.. 82. Some of the petty hill states here referred to must have been

included in the region which by its ancient Frontier territories

name was known as DĀRVĀBHISĀRA. I have to the south-west and west.

elsewhere shown that this name, as a geo

graphical term, was applied to the whole tract of the lower and middle bills between the Candrabhāgā and Vitastā.3 The combined names of the Dārvas and Abhisāras are found already in the ethnographical lists of the Mahābhārata and Bệhatsaṁhitā. A chief of this region figures by the ethnic appellation of Abisares in the accounts of Alexander's Indian campaign.

The most important of the hill-states in this territory was certainly the ancient RĀJAPURĪ represented by the modern district of Rajauri.“ It comprised the valleys drained by the Tohi of Rajauri and its tributaries. Owing to its position on the most direct route to the Panjāb, Rājapuri was necessarily often brought into political relations with Kaśmir. When Hiuen Tsiang passed through it, the kingdom of Rājapuri' was subject to Kaśmir. From the 10th century onwards we find the chiefs of Rājapuri as practically independent rulers, though the Chronicle tells us of numerous expeditions undertaken into their territory by the later Kaśmir kings. The upper valley of the Tohi of Prūnts leading to the Pir Pantsāl Pass, was included in Rājapuri territory. Here lay probably the famous strong-hold of Rājagiri known also to Albērūni. 6

Rājapuri took its name from its capital which is repeatedly mentioned by Kalhaņa and undoubtedly occupied the position of the present town of Rajauri.? The ruling family belonged to the Khasa tribe. Its descendants were the Muhammadanized Rājpāt cbiefs who retained this territory down to the present century.

On the north-west Rājapuri was adjoined by the territory of LOHARA. The chief valley belonging to this hill-state was the present Loherin which we have already visited when examining the Tõş?maidān route. Lohara became important for Kaśmir from the end of the 11th century when a branch of its ruling family acquired the Kaśmir throne. Subsequently this branch succeeded also to Lohara which thus became united to Kaśmir under the same ruler. As the ancestral home and stronghold of the dynasty, the castle of Lohara has played a great part during the last reigns related by Kalhaņa. The chiefs of Lohara are distinctly named as belonging to the Khasa tribe.

1 viii, 1665 sqq. % See Rajat, viii. 2283 note. 8 See note i. 180. 4 For a detailed account, see Rājat. vi. 286 note, 6 See Räjat. viii. 959 note. 8 See vii. 1270 note. 7 See vii. 973 sqq.

Lohara seems to have included in those times also the town and district of ParŅOTSA corresponding to the present Pūnch or Prūnts (the Kaśmiri form), in the lower valley of the Tohi (Tauşi). In Hiuen Tsiang's time Parņotsa gave its name to the whole hill-state which was then tributary to Kaśmir. The Muhammadan Rājās of Prūnts, closely related to the Khakhas of the Vitastā Valley, remained more or less independent till the conquest of Mahārāja Gulāb Singh. Their territory forms now a separate small principality under a branch of the Jammu family. Parņotsa being on the great route to the western Panjāb is often mentioned in the Kaśmir Chronicles. The large percentage of the Kaśmiri element in the population of Prūnts attests the closeness and ancient date of its relations to Kaśmir.

The hills to the south-west of Prūnts were held till early in this century by petty chiefs, known as the Rājās of Kõțli. It is possible that the small hill-state of KĀLIÑJARA' repeatedly referred to by Kalhaņa and known also to Ferishta, lay in this direction.3

Proceeding to the north-west of Parņotsa we come to the valley of the Vitastā. This, as has already been shown above, was held in old times as an outlying frontier-district of Kaśmir as far down as BOLYASAKA, the present Buliāsa. Beyond this point it was occupied by Khaśas. In Muhammadan times the valley was divided between several petty chiefs of the Khakha and Bomba clans who seem to have acknow. ledged as their nominal head the Khakha Rājā of Muzaffarābād. The portion of the valley between Muzaffarābād and Buliāsa bore tho old name of DVĀRAVATI from which the modern designation of this tract, Dvärbidi, is derived (see above, $ 53).

Beyone valley is whole Mar

I Compare for the history of Lohara and its various localities, Note E, Rajat. iv. 177, reproduced in Ind. Ant., 1897, pp. 225 sqq.

& See for details note iv. 18. Hiuen Tsiang's reference shows that the town of Parnotsa must be older than the time of Lalitādityn to whom Kalhaņa ascribes its foundation, 3 See note Rājat. vii. 1256.

J. 1. 17

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