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gonal cella of which the high basement and the side walls are still wellpreserved. The quadrangular court in which it stands is enclosed by ancient walls and approached by ornamented gateways.
The position of this shrine has suggested to me its possible identity with the ancient temple of Vişņu RAŅASVĀMIN which Kalhaņa mentions as founded by King Raņāditya. This temple must have enjoyed considerable celebrity till a comparatively late period. Mankha refers to it as an object of his father's devotion and Jonarāja in his comments on the passage speaks of Vişņu Raņasvamin as one of the chief shrines of Pravarapura.
In his own Chronicle Jonarāja indicates this temple as the furthest point up to which Zainu-l-'ābidin carried the canal flowing through Jainanagari. The latter locality corresponds to the Srivagar quarters of Sangin Darwāza and Naushahr, and the canal itself is the one now known as Lachem Kul. It brings the waters of the Sind River viâ ^mburhēr to the northern suburbs of Srinagar, and after flowing past the Jāmi' Masjid empties itself into the Mār canal near the bridge called Kādi Kadal. In the corner formed by the two canals stands the ruined temple above described. If it could be shown that the present termination of the Lachạm Kul is the same which Jonarāja knew in the middle of the fifteenth century, the identity of those remains with the Raņasvāmin temple might be considered as certain. 97. Crossing the Mār to the south we reach the city quarter
known as Brad' mar, occupying the right bank Bhattārakamatha ;
of the river between the Fourth and Fifth Diddāmatha.
Bridge. It derives its name from the ancient BHAȚȚĀRAKAMAȚAA which is repeatedly referred to in the Rajatarangiņi as a building of considerable size and strength. Bilhaņa too notices it specially in his descripton of Srinagar. Like other Maţhas built originally to serve the purposes of a Sarai, it was used on occasion as a place of defence. Queen Diddā sent her infant son there at the time of a dangerous rising.
1 Rājat, iii. 453 sq. note.
4 Compare Rajat. iii. 453-454 note. The Lachâm Kul is mentioned by Abū·l-Fazl, ii. p. 355. It probably took its name (equivalent to * Lakşmikulyā) from Lakşmi, the queen of Shahābū-d-din, in whose honour the quarter of Lakşmīnagari was found in the vicinity of the present Sangin Darwāza ; see Jonar, 407 sq.
6 See Rājat. vi. 240 note; viii, 2426 ; Vikram. xviii. 11. For the derivation of Braời from Bhatļāraka comp. Brõrinambal < Bhatļāranadvalā, below. That Bhattā. rakamatha was the old name of this locality, is known to the tradition of the Pandits ; see BÜHLER, Report, p. 16,
The Chronicle shows us often the Mathas of Srinagar utilized as places of refuge in the times of internal troubles, occasionally also turned into prisons. We may hence conclude that they were substantially built, probably like modern Sarais in the form of detached quadrangles, and thus better adapted for defence than other city-buildings.
That Mathas more than once left their names to the city-quarters in which they stood, is shown by the designation of other wards. Thus the large quarter of Didemar which forms the western end of the city on the right river-bank, retains the name of the DIDDĀMAȚHA. It was built by Queen Diddā for the accommodation of travellers from various parts of India. As a local name Diddāmatha meets us often in the later Chronicles. Above Didamar we find near the Sixth Bridge the quarter of Balandimar. It represents in all probability the Balādhyamatha of the later Chronicles which Jonarāja mentions as having been built by Balādhyacandra under King Rājadeva in the 13th century.* A little to the north of the Sixth Bridge lies the Mahalla known by
the name of Khandobavan. It has received Skandabhavana ; Naďa vana.
its appellation from the ancient Vibära of
SKANDABHAVANA, a foundation of Skandagupta whom Kalhaņa mentions among the ministers of Pravarasena II.'s successor Yudhisthira. The site of the Vihāra has been traced by me in the close vicinity of the Ziārat of Pir Muḥammad Bāsur. Certain ancient remains there were locally known and worshipped till the middle of the present century as a Tirtha sacred to Skanda.6
The ground immediately to the north-east of Khandabavan is now an open waste space used partly for Muhammadan graveyards. It seems to have been unoccupied already in old times. For it was chosen as the burning place for the widows of the murdered king Sussala when a rebel force hovering around the capital rendered the usual burning ground on the island of Mākşikasvāmin inaccessible.?
The quarter of Narvor still further to the north is probably identical with the old NADAVANA, mentioned by Kalhaņa as the site of a Vihāra built by one of King Meghavahana's queens. I have shown in my note on the passage that the modern name goes back to a form #Nadavāța. The termination rāļa "garden,' frequent in Kaśmir local names, may safely be taken as the equivalent of vana in Kalhaņa's form of the name. 98. Before we continue our survey further up the river, it will be
I Compare Rajat. vi. 223; viii. 374, 1052, 2309.
o Compare Note K, vi. 137, also for the temple of Parvaguptesrara which stood close by.
7 Rājat. viii, 1441 sq.
useful to make a brief reference to the bridges Bridges of old Sri.
which connect the two river-banks within the nagara.
city. Srinagar has now seven bridges across the Vitastā. Their number has remained unchanged for at least five hundred years.
Already Sharifu-d-din had heard that of the thirty boat-bridges constructed across the great river of Kaśmir, there were seven in the town of Srinagar. The boats were bound together by chains, and through the bridges a way could be opened for the river traffic. Sharifa-d-din's notice is of interest because it shows clearly that down to the end of the Hindu period permanent bridges across the Vitastā where unknown in Kaśmir,
I had been led to the same conclusion by an examination of the Rājatarangiņi passages bearing on the subject.3 Kalhaņa distinctly says of the two bridges the construction of which he specially records, that they were built with boats. Elsewhere this inference may be drawn from the rapidity with which the bridges are broken at the approach of the enemy or in danger of fire. The first bridge of this kind is ascribed by Kalbaņa to Pravara
sena II. who built the 'Great Bridge' (Brhatsetu) Bphatsetu.
in his new capital. “Only since then is such construction of boat-bridges known."6 This
This Great Bridge' is subsequently mentioned in connection with a great conflagration which destroyed the city in the time of Sussala (A.D. 1123). This fire arose at the southern end of Srinagar, and Kalhaņa mentions that the smoke first rising from Mākşikasvāmin: Māy&sum had scarcely been noticed from the 'Bșhatsetu' when the fire was already spreading over the whole city. Kalhaņa evidently refers to the 'Great Bridge' as a comparatively distant point from Mākşikasvāmin. Considering that the river forms an almost straight reach from this locality to the present Fourth Bridge, it appears to me likely that Pravarasena's bridge was somewhere in the vicinity of the latter. The position is in the
I Compare Rājat. iii. 11 note.
very heart of the city. It is just here that Zainu-l-'ābidin subse. quently constructed the first permanent bridge over the Vitastā named after him Zaina Kadal (Jainakadali).1
Another old boat-bridge had been established by Harga just oppo. site to his palace.
The latter as we shall see was situated on the left bank somewhere near the present Second Bridge (Haba Kadal). The bridge proved fatal to Harşa's fortunes, because it enabled the rebels to make their final and successful assault on the palace.
There can be little doubt that the first permanent bridge across the Vitastā was of wood and showed the same peculiar cantilever con. struction which the Kaśmir bridges have preserved to this day. The latter have attracted the attention of all modern travellers and have often been described. But it is curious that none of them can be traced back beyond the time of Zainu-l-'Ābidin. The explanation may lie in the fact that that stone-architecture in which the engineers of the Hindu period were so proficient, did not permit of the construction of bridges with a sufficient span.
For their Muhammadan successors working chiefly in wood it was easier to overcome this difficulty.
Among the most characteristic features of the river-scene as it now presents itself within Srinagar, are the numerous wooden bathing cells moored before all city Gbāts. They have been there already in Hindu times. For Kalhaņa mentions more than once the snānakoşthas of the river. From a humorous sketch of city-life which Kalhaņa draws for us, we can see that they formed, then as now, the favourite meeting-place of the idle and curious. 99. Resuming our walk up the river-bank we pass the remains of
more than one old temple near the present Eastern quarters of
Ziārats of Bad Shāh (Zainu-l-'ābidin), Shāh Srinagara
Hamadán and elsewhere. But we have no data for their identification. An old site is marked by the present Ghāç Somøyār, below the Second Bridge, which represents the SOMATIRTAA of the Rājatarangiņi.6 The place is still visited as Tirtha, and some old Lingas are found by the river-side. The quarter in which the Somatirtha lies, is known as Sudermar. It owes its name to the SAMUDRĀMAȚHA built by Samudrā, the queen of Rāmadeva, in
I See Sriv. i. 231 89., 296.
* Compare Rajat. viii. 706, 1183, 2423. Also Kşemendra, Samay. ii. 38, know the term snānakosthaka which lives in the present Kś, frānokuth.
6 See Räjat. viii, 706–710.
J. 1. 20
the 13th century. The numerous passages in which the Samudrāmatha is mentioned by the later Chronicles, makes this identification quite certain."
A little higher up, if we can trust local tradition, stood the ancient temple of VARDHAMĀNEŠA mentioned already in King Samdhimat's reign. The site so designated by the Purohitas of the adjoining Mahalla is close to the Malayār Ghāt. I have referred already in a previous note to the curious manner in which an ancient Linga supposed to be that of Vardhamāneśa was recovered a few years ago from a neighbouring Mosque and a Māhātmya composed for the newly established shrine.%
The confluence of the Tsūņķh Kul or Mahāsarit with the Vitastā we have also had occasion to notice. 3 It is the Tirtha now known as MĀRĪSAMGAMA. Beyond it lies the great island of Māyosum, the ancient MĀKSIKASVĀMIN, now chiefly occupied by the houses and camps of Euro. pean residents and visitors. From the way it is referred to by Kalhaņa, it appears that it was already partly inhabited in old times.* Follow. ing up the right bank of the Mahāsarit above the junction we reach the quarter of Khudo bal already identified with the Kșurikābala of King Pravarasena's story.
Here begins the old embankment or Setu, noticed in connection with the latter. To the north of this embankment stretches an extensive marsh fed by canals coming from the Dal and known as Brârinambal. It is the Bhatļāranadvalā of the Chronicle into which the body of one of Harşa's ministers was thrown after his execution.6
At the eastern end of the Setu where it joins the rocky foot of the Takht-i Sulaimān hill, there has been for at least a century a gate through which the Tsūņķh Kul flows out from the lake. It is closed at times of flood when the Vitastā rises higher than the level of the Dal. It is highly probable that this gate is very old and contemporary with the construction of the embankment itself. Beyond it lies the suburb of Drugojan. This is identified in an old gloss of the Rājatarangiņi with DURGĀGALIKĀ, where according to tradition the blind King Yudhişthira I. was imprisoned after his abdication.7
| See Jonar. 111; Sriv. iv. 121, 169, 290; Fourth Chron. 504, 618.
See above, § 31 note 2. 8 See above, $ 65. 4 See Rajat. iv. 88 note. 6 Compare § 92.
o See Rājat. vii. 1038. Nambal, from Skr, nadvalā, is the regular Kś, word for marsh.' Brörd is a direct phonetic derivative of Skr. Bhatļāra 'god.'
1 Soe Rajat, ii. 4.