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Leaving the Setu where it makes its great bend and going north across low ground flanked by marshes, we reach the quarter of Nāv4pür. The bridge which leads here over the Mār or Mahāsarit, is repeatedly mentioned as NAUPURASETU by Srivara, in connection with later sieges of Srinagar. By breaking it, the south-eastern parts of the city were rendered more secure. Continuing our route to the north we to the great suburb of Rõnivõr. It is traversed by, numerous canals coming from the Dal. Kalhaņa mentions it repeatedly by its ancient name of RĀJĀNAVĀȚIKĀ as a place largely iuhabited by Brahmans. Their solemn fasts (prāyopaveśa) gave no small trouble to King Sussala in his worst straights. Räntvõr has continued to the present day a favourite place of residence for city Brahmans.

100. We have now completed our circuit of the ancient city as Left river bank.

far as it lay on the right bank of the river

and may proceed to the smaller and later portion which occupies the left bank. Just opposite to the Mārisamgama stands the Shērgashi, the modern palace of the Dogrā rulers. Its site was apparently first chosen by the Pathān governors for their fortified residence.

Immediately below the palace the Kuțakul or Kșiptikā branches off from the river. We have already noticed its value as a line of defence for this part of the city. The quarter of Kathül which lies next between the Kuțakul and the river is of ancient date. It is mentioned as Kāşthila by Kalbaņa and other writers, Bilhaņa speaking of it particularly as a locality inhabited by Brahmans.* At the northern end of the Kāțhül quarter and close to the pre

sent Second Bridge, we must assume the palace Site of Royal

of the later Hindu kings to have stood. Its Palace.

position is indicated by an interesting passage of the Rājatarangiņi which informs us that King Ananta (A. D. 1028–63) abandoned the palace of the former dynasties and transferred the royal residence to the vicinity of the shrine of SADĀGIVA, The new site was adhered to by subsequent kings probably till long after Kalhaņa's time. The mention of the Sadāśiva shrine and the fre

1 See Sriv, iv. 122, 243.

* See Rajat. viii. 756, 768, 899. For the phonetio relation of Rõni < Skr. Räjäna, see viii. 756 note; võr is common in Kś. local names and derived from Skr. văţika 'garden.'

8 See above, $ 67.
• See Rājat. viii. 1169 note, and Vikram. xviii. 25.

6 Compare Rojat. viii. 186-187, and for detailed proof of the identification, the noto thoroon.

quent references to the Kșiptikā, as flowing near to the royal palace (rājadhāni) enable us to fix the position of the latter with fair accu. racy. In the note on the above passage I have shown that the Sadāśiva temple stood opposite to the Samudrāmatha which occupies the right river bank just below the Second Bridge. Exactly in the position thus indicated we find now an ancient Linga, on the river Ghāț of Puruşayār, which the tradition of the local Purohitās knows by the name of Sadāśiva.

It is in this neighbourhood, then, that the palace stood which had witnessed so many tragic scenes related in the last two Books of Kalhana's Chronicle. Its great height is specially referred to by Bilhaņa. This suggests that it was in part at least built of wood, just like a later palace described by Mirzā Haidar, “Sultan Zainu-l-'ābidin built himself a palace in the town which in the dialect of Kashmir is called Rājdān [i.e., Skr. rājadhāni]. It has twelve stories, some of which contain fifty rooms, halls and corridors. The whole of this lofty structure is built of wood.” This construction of the palace would well explain the rapidity with which it was burned down by the pretender Uccala on his final attack upon Harşa. We can thus also understand why there are no particularly striking remains at the site which could be attributed to the ruins of this royal residence.

The last-named incident gives Kalhaņa occasion to mention also some other data regarding the royal palace. Close to it was a garden in which Harga and his ill-fated son Bhoja enjoyed a deceptive rest before the rebels' last assault.3 The gardens near the palace are also elsewhere mentioned. Harşa had their trees cut down because they obstructed the view, and at a later time the besieging Damaras fed their camp-fires with wood brought from the same gardens. Even at the present day there are numerous old gardens across the Kșiptikā close to the site where the palace once stood. In front of the palace was the boat-bridge already mentioned which the king had himself constructed, and which was the scene of his last desperate struggle.

Where the old palace stood which was abandoned by King Ananta, we cannot

say
with

accuracy It is, however, probable that its site was in the old part of Pravarapura on the right bank. Kalhaņa mentions it twice as purānarājadhāni ( the old palace'), but gives no particulars.6 Its deserted ground was built over with a Matha in Kalhaņa's own time.

| See Tāri khiRashidi, p. 429. 2 See Rājat. vii. 1565 89., 1583. 3 Rājat. vii. 1538 sqq. Räjat. vii. 1223 ; viii. 1056. 6 See Räjat. vii. 1539, 1549. 6 See Rajat. viii. 837, 2417.

no

The embankments on the left side of the river as well as the walls of Ziārats show ample remains of ancient buildings. But we have

means of identifying any particular sites. At the western extremity of this part of the city, howerer, we may locate with some probability the temple of Kşemagaurisvara, built by Queen Didda's weak husband Kşemagupta. Bilhaņa in his description of Srinagar mentions it as an imposing building, the Mandapas' of which extended to a 'Saṁgama' of the Vitastā. I have shown elsewhere that the confluence meant is probably that of the Vitastā with the Dugdhasindhu or Chatsekul which lies opposite to the quarter of Diddāmatha.

Section V. THE ENVIRONS OF SRINAGARA.

101. Having completed our survey of old Srinagara we may now proceed to examine the ancient sites of its environs. They are almost all situated to the north of the Vitastā within the Pargaņa now known as Phākh, and designated as Phākhuvă in Srivara's Chronicle. It comprises the tract lying between the east shore of the Anchéār, the range towards the Sind Valley and the bills which enclose the Dal on the east and south. Owing to the facility of communication across the lake and the manifold attractions of its shores, Phākh seems to have always been a favourite resort for the inhabitants of the capital. This fact is fully illustrated by the numerous places of ancient date which we find dotted around the lake. Starting from its southernmost corner in the immediate vicinity

of the city we come first to the hill popularly The Hill of Gopa'

known as Takht-i-Sulaiman, Its bold pyrami(Gopādri.)

dal form and the old temple which crowns its summit, make this hill a most conspicuous object in the land-scape of Srinagar. The present name of the hill, meaning Solomon's throne,' is undoubtedly of Muhammadan origin. Its alleged derivation from Sandhimat, the saintly hero of a well-known legend recorded in the Rājatarangiņi, is nothing but an invention of the Bāchbattas of Sri. nagar.“

1 Vikram. xviii. 23.
% Compare Rajat. vi. 172-173 note.

8 Sriv. iv. 306. The Lokaprakāśa writes Phagvå while the modern Māhātmyas of Isälaya or 1$9bạr and Sureśvari affect the form Phalaka.

* The Dame Takht-i-Sulaimān is common enough in the local nomenclature of Mab ammadan countries ; compare, e.g., the peak of this name in the Sulaiman 6 See the remarks of FERGUSSON, History of Indian Archit., p. 282, against Gen. Canningham's and Major Cole's assumptions who represented the extant templo as one of the earliest buildings in Kasmir.

That the ancient designation of the hill was GOPADRI is shown beyond all doubt by an interesting passage of Kalhaņa's Chronicle. It relates how the troops of the pretender Bhikṣācara when thrown back from the city which they had endeavoured to enter after crossing the Mahāsarit, i.e., from the south-east, took refuge on the Gopa hill' or Gopādri. There they were besieged by the royal troops until a diversion made by Bhikṣācara enable them to retreat to the higher hills in the east by the low neck which connects these with the Takht-i Sulaimān.

Kalhaņa in the First Book of his Chronicle informs us that King Gopāditya built a shrine of Siva Jyeştheśvara on the Gopādri. It is difficult not to connect this notice in some way with the extant temple which occupies so prominent a position on the summit of the hill. General Cunningham, it is true, on the strength of an alleged tradition had proposed to identify this temple with the Jyeştharudra shrine which Kalhaņa mentions as a foundation of Jalanka, Asoka's son, in the ancient Srinagari. Bat Prof. Bühler has already shown that there is no genuine tradition regarding the temple among the Srinagar Brahmans.*

It is certain that the superstructures of the present temple belong to a late period.5 But the massive and high base on which this temple is raised, and certain parts of the structure are no doubt of a far earlier date. These may well have formed part of a building which in Kalhaņa's time,-rightly or wrongly, we have no means to judge,was looked upon as a shrine of Jyeştheśvara erected by King Gopāditya. There is no other ancient ruin on the hill. Nor would the configuration of the latter have admitted at any other point but the summit, of the construction of a shrine of

any

dimensions. It is of interest to note that the tradition of Abu-l-Fazl's time distinctly attributed the temple standing on 'Solomon's hill' to the time of Gopāditya..

Kõh, 8. of the Gumal Pass. The derivation from Samdhimat, referred to by Prof. BÖHLER, Report, p. 17, is not supported by any evidence whatever and anknown even to the most modern Māhātmyas.

I See Rajat. viii. 1104-10 note. That the Takht-i-Sulaiman was called by its ancient name Gopādri, had been surmised already by Pt. Govind Kaal at the time of Prof. Bühler's visit; see Report, p. 17. But the decisive evidence of this passage was not known to him.

See i. 341 and note. i Rajat. i. 124 ; Anc. Geogr., p. 95 ; also above, & 90. • See Report, p. 17.

6 din.i-Akb., ii. p. 383.

102. In my note on Rājat. i. 124 I have shown that an old tradi.

tion which can be traced back to at least the Tirtha of Jyesthes.

sixteenth centary, connected the Takht hill with vara.

the worship of Siva Jyeştharudra or, by another form of the name, JYEŞTHEŚVARA (Jyeștheśa). And we find in fact a Linga known by this name worshipped even at the present day at the Tirtha of Jyōthēr, scarcely more than one mile from the east foot of the hill.

This Tirtha which undoubtedly derives its name from Jyeștheśvara, lies in a glen of the hill-side, a short distance from the east shore of the Gagri Bal portion of the Dal. Its sacred spring, designated in the comparatively modern Mābātmya as Jyeșthānāga, forms a favorite object of pilgrimage for the Brahmans of Srinagar. Fragments of colossal Lingas are found in the vicinity of Jyōthēr and show with some other ancient remains now built into the Ziārats of Jyōthēr and Gupakār, that the site had been held sacred from an early time,

It is in this vicinity that we may look for the ancient shrine of Jyeştharadra, which Jalauka is said to have erected at Srinagari. But in the absence of distinct archæological evidence its exact position cannot be determined. It is highly probable that whatever the origin and the date of the temple on the Takht hill may be, it was connected with the worship of Jyeștharudra at Jyēthēr. No other Tirtha is known in the immediate neighbourhood.

The distance of the shrine from the Tirtha is scarcely greater than that of Lalitāditya's temple at Mārtaņd from the sacred spring in honour of which it was erected. And in both places the distance of the temple is easily accounted for by the more prominent position which was thus secured for it. There is yet another analogy in the case of the two shrines. Both have long ago ceased to be places of popular worship. But the sacred springs, to the presiding deity of which they were dedicated, continue to attract pilgrims though shorn of all splendour of temples and images. Kalhaņa in the same passage which mentions the erection of

King Gopāditya’s shrine on the 'Gopa hill' Gopgiahāra ; Bhú.

makes that prince bestow the Gopa Agrakşīravăţikā; Thedā.

hāras' on Brahman settlers from Aryadeśa.8 The combination of the two local names suggests that by the GoPĀ.

| Compare Fourth Chron. 592, 853, 806.

2 For Jyeșthefvara > Jyėther we have exact analogies in Kapafefvara > Rother, Amarefvara > Amburhér, eto.

8 Soe i. 341. Agrahāra is the regular term designating a Jágir or piece of land bestowed on individuals or religious corporations, etc,; see note i. 87.

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