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GRAHĀRAS are meant the fertile lands of the present Gupo kār, between the north foot of the Takht hill and the Dal. The name Gupakăr may be, in fact, the direct phonetic derivative of the term used by Kalhaņa.'
Our surmise is supported by the reference which Kalbaņa in the verse immediately following makes to the village BAŪKSTRAVĀȚIKĀ. This place is identified by the old glossator A, with Buchivor, a small hamlet situated on the narrow strip of land at the rocky north-west foot of the Takht hill. The modern name is clearly derived from Kalhaņa's form. Gopāditya is said to have removed to this confined and secluded spot Brahmans who had given offence by eating garlic.
The combined mention of Gopādri, Gopāgrahāra and Bhūkşiravātikā in Rājat. i. 341 sq. suggests that Kalhaņa has reproduced bere local traditions collected from the sites immediately adjoining the hill. Whether the connection of these localities with King Gopāditya's reign was based on historical fact, or only an old popular etymology working upon the word Gopa found in the first two names, can no longer be decided.
Continuing our route along the eastern shore of the Dal we come, at a distance of about one mile from Gupakār, to the large village of Thid, prettily situated amid vineyards and orchards. It is the THEDĀ of the Rājatarangiņi, mentioned as one of the places which the pious King Saṁdhimat or Aryarāja adorned with Mathas, divine images, and Lingas. Abū-l-Fazl speaks of Thid as "a delightful spot where seven springs unite; around them are stone buildings, memorials of by-gone times."3 The remains here alluded to can no longer be traced, but the seven springs (Saptapuskarini) which are also referred to in the Haracaritacintāmaņi (iv. 40 sqq.), are still pointed out.
The cluster of villages which we reach about one and a half miles beyond This, and which jointly bear the name Bron, can be safely identified with BHIMĀDEVI which Kalhaņa notices along with Thedá. The Nilamata knows the sacred site of Bhimadevi in conjunction with the Sureśvari Tirtha which we shall next visit, and in the Haracaritacintāmaņi it is named with the seven springs of Thedā. The Tirtha of Bhimādevi is no longer known, but may be located with some probability at the fine spring near Dāmpār marked now by a Muhammadan shrine.
I Gupokär may go back to a form * Gup@gār, with assimilation of g to the preceding tenuis. In Kś. the hardening of 9 to k is by no means unknown, see Dr. Grierson's remarks, Z.D.M.G., I., p. 3. * Gupogår could easily be traced back to Gopågrahara through Pr, forms like * Gupagrár.
$ See Rajat. ii. 135 note. 8 Ain-s-Akb., ii. p. 361.
103. A sacred site of far greater fame and importance is that of
the present village of Isobar which lies about Tīrtha of Sureśvarī.
two miles further north on the Dal shore and a little beyond the Mughal garden of Nishāt. The site was known in ancient times as Sureśvarikşetra (“the field of Sureśvari’).! It was sacred to Durgā-Sureśvari who is still worshipped on a high crag rising from the mountain range to the east of Isabar village. The seat of the goddess is on a rugged rock some 3000 feet above the village, offering no possible room for any building. The numerous shrines erected in her honour were hence built on the gently sloping shore of the lake below.
The Tirtba of Sureśvari is often referred to in Kalhaņa's Chronicle and other Kaśmirian texts as a spot of exceptional holiness. It was particularly sought by the pious as a place to die at. The pilgrimage to Sureśvari is connected with visits to several sacred springs in and about Isibạr. One of them, Satadhārā, is already mentioned by Kşemendra. It is passed in a narrow gorge some 1500 feet below the rock of Sureśvari.
Isa bạr derives its present name from the shrine of IseśvarA which King Samdhimat-Aryarāja according to the Rājatarangiņi erected in honour of his Guru Iśāna. An earlier form, Isabror, which is found in an old gloss of the Chronicle and evidently was heard also by Abū-l-Fazl, helps to connect Isa bạr and Tšeśvara. 4
Isa bạr is still much frequented as a pilgrimage place. The chief attraction is a sacred spring known as Guptaganyā which fills an ancient stone-lined tank in the centre of the village. This conveniently accessible Tirtha is the scene of a very popular pilgrimage on the Vaišākhi day and has fairly obscured the importance of the mountain seat of Sureśvari. A ruined mound immediately behind the tank is popularly believed to mark the site of the Iseśvara shrine. Numerous remains of ancient buildings are found around the sacred springs and elsewhere in the village. They probably belong to the various other temples the erection of which is mentioned by Kalhaņa at the site of Sureśvari.5 Passing round the foot of the ridge on which Sureśvari is
worshipped, we come to the small village of Şadarhadvana;
Hārvan which the old glossator of the RājataTripureśvara.
rangiņi identifies with SADARHADVANA (the wood of the six Arhats '). This place is mentioned by Kalhaņa as the residence of the great Buddhist teacher Nāgārjuna. The name Hārvan may well be derived from Şaďarhadvana, but in the absence of other evidence the identification cannot be considered as certain. On the hill-side south of the village I observed already in 1888 fragments of ornamented bricks. Since then remarkable remains of ancient brickpavements have come to light on occasion of excavations made for the new Srinagar waterworks.
| Compare for Suresvari and the site of Isą bạr, note v. 37.
+ -bạr is a modern contraction for -bror, from Skr. bhatțăraka, which in Kasmir local names has often taken the place of its synonym -isvara ; comp. e.g., Skr. Vijayesvara > Kś. Vijobror. 6 See Rüjat. v. 37, 40 sq.; viii. 3365.
J. 1. 21
Proceeding further up the valley of the stream which comes from the Mār Sar lake, we reach, at a distance of about three miles from the Dal, the village of Triphar. Evidence I have discussed elsewhere, makes it quite certain that it is the ancient TRIPUREÁVARA (Tripuresa).? The latter is repeatedly mentioned as a site of great sanctity by Kalhaņa as well as in the Nilamata and some Māhātmyas. But it has long ago ceased to be a separate pilgrimage place. A little stream known as the Tripuragangā near Triphar is, however, still visited as one of the stations on the Mahādeva pilgrimage.
Kşemendra in the colophon of his Daśāvatāracarita refers to the hill above Tripureśa as the place where he was wont to find repose
and where he composed his work. In Zain-ul-'ābidin's time Tripureśvara seems yet to have been a Tirtha much frequented by mendicants.3 Tripureśvara too possessed its shrine of Jyeştheśvara, and to this King Avantivarman retired on the approach of death. A legend related by the Sarvāvatāra connected the site of Tripureśvara with the defeat of the demon Tripura by Siva and with the latter's worship on the neighbouring peak of Mahādeva. I have not been able to examine the site and am hence unable to state whether there are any ancient ruins near it.
The whole mountain-ridge which stretches to the south of Triphar and along the Dal, bore in ancient times the name of SRIDVĀRA. On the opposite side of the Valley rises the great peak of MAHADEVA to a height of over 13,000 feet. Numerous references to it in the Nilamata, Sarvāvatāra, and other texts, show that it was in old times just as now frequented as a Tirtha.
We may now again descend the valley towards the north shore of the Dal. On our way we pass close to Hārvan the village of Tsatea where the convenience of modern worshippers has located a substitute for the
I See Rājat. i. 173 note.
ancient Tirtha of the goddess Sāradā (see below $ 127). Leaving aside the famous garden of Shälimār of which our old texts know nothing, we come to a marshy extension of the Dal knowp as Tēlabal. The stream which flows through it and which forms a branch of the river coming from the Mār Sar, bore the old name of Tilaprastha.
104. The road which takes us from Tēlabal to the mouth of the Hiranyapura.
Sind Valley is the same which was followed
by the pretender Bhiksācara and his rebel allies on a march to Sureśvari described in the Rājatarangiņi. The narrow embankment on which they fought and defeated the royal troops, leads across the Tēlabal marshes.
At the south foot of the ridge which runs down to the opening of the Sind Valley, we find the village of Rạnyil, the ancient HIRANYAPURA. The place is said by Kalhaņa to have been founded by King Hiraṇyākşa. As it lies on the high-road from the Sind Valley to Srinagar it is repeatedly mentioned also in connection with military operations directed from that side against the capital. The victorious Uccala when marching upon Srinagar, had the Abhişeka ceremony performed en route by the Brahmans of Hiraṇyapura. It seems to have been a place of importance, since it figures in a fairy-tale related in the Kathāsaritsāgara as the capital of Kaśmir. A spring a little to the south of the village is visited by the pilgrims to the Haramukuțagangā and bears in Māhātmyas the name of Hiranyākșanāga. From near Rạnyil several old water-courses radiate which carry the
water of the Sind River to the village lying Juşkapura;
between the Anchiār and the Dal lakes. One Amareśvara.
of these canals passes the village of Zukur. A tradition recorded already by General Cunningham identifies this place with the ancient JUŞKAPURA. Kalhaņa names the place as a foundation of the Turuşka (i.e. Kuşana) King Juşka who also built a Vihāra there. The Muhammadan shrines and tombs of the village contain considerable remains of ancient buildings.
| The first reference to this somewhat over-praised locality which I can find, is in Abū-l-Fayl who mentions the waterfall or rather the cascades of 'Shālahmar's see ii. p. 361. The Vitastā", Iśālaya-, and Mahādeva-Māhātmyas which are of very modern origin, show this faet also by their references to 'Salamūra' and the whimsical etymologies which they give for the name (Måraśālā, etc.). We might reasonably expect that Jonarāja and Sriyara in their detailed accounts of the Dal would have mentioned the place if it had then claimed any importance.
% See Rājat. v. 46 note ; Sriv. i. 421.
To the west of Juşkapura and on the shore of the Anchéār lies the large village of Amburhör. It is the ancient AMAREŚVARA often mentioned in the Rājatarangiņi in connection with military operations to the north of Srinagar. This is easily accounted for by the fact that the place lay then as now on the high road connecting the Sind Valley with the capital. It took its name from a temple of Siva Amareśvara which Suryamati, Ananta's queen, endowed with Agrahāras and a Matha. The ancient slabs and sculptured fragments which I found in 1895 in and around the Ziārat of Farrukhzād Şāhib, may possibly have belonged to this temple.
Continuing on the road towards Srinagar for about two miles further we come to the large village of Vicār Nāg prettily situated in extensive wallnut groves. A fine Nāga near the village forms the object of a popular Yātrā in the month of Caitra. It is supposed to be an epiphany of the Ailāpattra Nāga who is mentioned also in the Nilamata, An earlier designation seems to be MUKTĀMŪLAKANĀGA which is given to the locality by Srivara and in the Tirthasaṁgraha. To the west of the village and near an inlet of the Anchéār are the ruins of three ancient temples now converted into Ziārats and tombs.3 Only a quarter of a mile to the east of Vicār Nāg and on the other
side of the old canal called Lacham Kul Amitabhavana.
(*Lakşmikulyā) stands the hamlet of Anta. baran. In
my “Notes on Ou-k'ong's account of Kaśmir” I have proved that Ântabavan derives its name from the ancient Vibāra of A MẶTA BHAVANA which Amộtaprabhā, a queen of Meghavāhana, is said to have erected.* Ou-k’ong mentions the Vihāra by the name of Nyo-mi-t'o-po-wan which represents a transcribed Prakrit form * Amitabhavana or Amitabhavana. An ancient mound with traces of a square enclosure around it, which is found between the canal and the hamlet, may possibly belong to the remains of this Vibāra. Proceeding to the east of Ântabavan for about a mile we come to
the large village of Sulare bal situated on a Tirtha of Sodara.
deep inlet of the Dal, known as Sudara khun. The name of the village and the neighbouring portion of the lake make it very probable that we have to place here the sacred spring of SODARA.5 It formed the subject of an ancient legend related by
1 See Rojat. vii. 183 note.
3 See Sriv. iv. 65. On his authority the name Muktāmülakanaga ought to have been shown on the map.
& Compare for a view of these remains, COLE, Ancient Buildings, p. 31. + See Rajat, iii. 9 note, and Notes on Ou-k’ong, pp. 9 899.
See Rūjat, i. 125-126 note. Kś. ·bal in Sudarabal means morely 'place.'