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and Amaranātha is much frequented even at the present day. The Māhātmyas of Vijayeśvara do not fail to name a considerable number of minor Tirthas to be visited along with the main site now marked by the new temple above referred to. But apart from Cakradhara and Gambhīrasamgama I am unable to trace any of these in the older texts.

Turning to that portion of the Dachünpor district which lies in the Lider Valley we have but few old localities to notice. The village of Liver, some ten miles to the north-west of Vijayeśvara, is the LEVĀRA of the Rājatarangiņi, mentioned as an Agrahāra established by King Lava. Kular, about four miles higher up the Valley, is identified by an old gloss with KURUHĀRA, said to have been an Agrahāra of Lava's son Kusa.

Close to Pahalgām where the Lidar Valley divides into two branches, lies the hamlet of Māmal. A small temple of the usual Kaśmir style built by the side of a fine spring is visited by the pilgrims to Amaranātha. It is designated in the Māhātmya called Amareśvarakalpa as MAMMEŚVARA. It is in all probability identical with the shrine of this name mentioned in the Rājatarangiņi.3 110. As we have already before noticed the several sacred sites

of the Amaranātha pilgrimage, we may now District of Vāmapārsya.

turn back and descend to the left or eastern

portion of the Lider Valley. It forms the modern Pargana of Khôvurpor. The latter name meaning left side' reproduces the earlier designation VĀMAPĀRÁVA, of the same significance, found in Jonarāja's Chronicle, the Lokaprakāśa and elsewhere. In the apper portion of the Pargaņa I am not able to identify any particular old locality, though ancient remains in the form of sculptures of some interest are found near several Nägas of this tract, e.g., at Lokut par and Sali (Papaharananāga).

The large village of Hut®mar is undoubtedly an old site. Its modern name seems to identify it with the SĀKTAMATHA which Kşemendra names as one of the stations in the peregrinations of his heroine Kankāli. The chief mosque of the place is built with the remains of a Hindu temple and preserves in its walls some sculptured fragments of remarkable beauty,

i See Rajat. i. 87.
& Rājat. i. 88.
8 See viii. 3360.
- Jonar. (Bo. ed.) 79,1232.

6 See Samay. ii. 43. The change of Säkta > Hute is in accordance with the phonetic laws of Kaśmiri; mar is the regalar derivative of mațha, see above, $ 56. [When preparing my map, I had not noticed the local name of Kşemendra's text; it is hence not shown on the map].

About one mile below Hutamar and on the bank of a branch of

the Lider, lies the hamlet of Bum!zu, which Shrine of

contains an ancient structure of considerable Bhīmakeśava.

historical interest. The Ziārat of Bāba Bāmødin Sāḥib is nothing but a well-preserved temple, converted, with a liberal use of plaster, into the supposed resting place of a Muhammadan saint. I have shown elsewhere that there is good reason to identify this shrine with the BHIMAKEŠAVA temple which Bhima Sāhi, king of Kābul, the maternal grandfather of Queen Diddā, is said to have erected during the rule of her husband Koemagupta (A.D. 950-958).

The legendary of the Ziārat relates that the saint was originally a Hindu and bore before his conversion to Islām the name of Bhima Sādhi. It is easy to recognize in this name an adaptation of Bhima Sāhi. Also the name of the locality Bumzu which the Mārtāndamāhātmya renders by Bhimadvīpa, is clearly derived from the old name of the shrine. Bhima is an abbreviation of Bhimakeśava to which Kś. zu, "island,' has been added with reference to the several islands formed here by the Lidar immediately in front of the hamlet.

Kalhaņa tells us a curious anecdote regarding the fate of Bhima Sāhi’s temple in King Harşa's time who confiscated the great treasures, with which it was endowed.% Close to the present Ziārat of Bām.din Sāhib is a small cave in the cliff containing a well-preserved little temple which is still used for Hindu worship. Another smaller shrine outside has been turned into the tomb of Rishi Ruknu-d-din Şāḥib. 111. About one mile south of Bumfzu we reach the Tirtha sacred

to Mārtānda which has from early times to the Tirtha of Mārtānda.

present day enjoyed a prominent position among the sacred sites of Kaśmir. It is marked by a magnificent spring traditionally represented as two, Vimala and Kamala. An ancient legend connects them with the birth of the sun-god MĀRTĀŅDA.3 The Tirtha is visited at frequent intervals by crowds of pilgrims and is well-known also in India proper.

The popular name of the Tirtha, Bavan, is derived from Skr. bhavana, '[sacred] habitation.' This somewhat general appellation seems to have come into use already at an early date, as Srivara employs it, and is in itself an indication of the great popularity of the Tirtha.

I See Rājat. vi. 178 note. For an accurate description of the temple, see Bishop Cowie's paper, J. A. S. B., 1866, pp. 100 sq.

% See Rajat. vii. 1081 sqq.

3 Compare for a detailed acconnt of the Tirtha, Rājat. iv. 192 note. The Vimala Nāga is named by the Nilamata, 963 ; Sriv, i. 377, etc.

• Sriv. i, 376, 387.


more specific designation is Matsobavan, Skr. Matsyabhavana'; this owes its origin to the abundance of sacred fish which swarm in the large basins filled by the spring. 1

The ancient remains at the sacred spring itself are very scanty. All the more imposing are the ruins of the great temple which King Lalitāditya erected at a short distance in honour of the presiding deity of the Tirtha.*

They are situated a little a mile to the south-east of * Bavan,' near the northern edge of the Uủar which stretches towards Anatnāg. It can scarcely be doubted that the site was chosen with a view to the prominent position it assured to the great temple. Kalhaņa duly praises “the wonderful shrine of Mārtānda with its massive walls of stone, within a lofty enclosure.” Its ruins though much injured by the ravages of time and earthquakes, form still the most impressive specimen of ancient Kaśmir architecture. They have been much admired by European travellers and often described. They are the earliest ruins in Kaśmir the date of which is fixed with approximate accuracy. 8

The name Mártāṇda, in the form of Mārtand or Maţan, still attaches to the ruins though they have long ago ceased to be an object of religious interest. King Kalasa had sought this great fane at the approach of death and expired at the feet of the sacred image (A.D. 1089). Harga, his son, respected this temple in the course of the ruthless confiscations to which he subjected the other rich shrines of the country. Subsequently in Kalhaņa's time the great quadrangular courtyard of the temple with its lofty walls and colonnades was used as a fortification. The destruction of the sacred image is ascribed to Sikandar Butshikast.

Kalhaņa diunctly mentions the town "swelling with grapes" which Lalitāditya founded near his temple; but of this no trace remains now. It is probable that at that time a canal supplied water from the Lider to the naturally arid plateau on wbich the temple stands. This canal seems to have been repaired by Zainu-l-'ābidin whose irrigation works on the Mārtaņd Udar are described at length by Jonarāja. The

1 Comp. Ain-i-Akb., ii. p. 358.

% See Rājat, iv. 192 and for details my note on the passage. For a description of the temple compare, e.g., CUNNINGHAM, J. A. 8. B., 1848, pp. 258 899.; COLE, Ancient Buildings, pp. 19 899. FERGUSSON, Ind. Architecture, pp. 285 sqq.

3 Lalitāditya's rule falls in the first half of the eighth century. Gen. Cunningham's assumption that the temple was built by the earlier King Raņāditya, and only the enclosure by Lalitāditya, rests on a misinterpretation of the Rājatar. passages iv. 192 and iii. 462. * See Jonar. 1245 sqq.

J. 1. 23

plateau has since become once more an arid waste though the course of the old canal can still be traced above Hutamar.

The town of Mārtāṇda had left its name to the small Pargana of Matan which comprised this plateau as well as the villages situated along the foot of the hills further east. It is referred to as Mārtāndadeka by Jonarāja. Abū-l-Fazl notices the large temple of Mațan and the well or pit close by, which a Muhammadan legend represents as the place of captivity of the angels Hārūt and Mārüt.' %


112. At the foot of the western extremity of the Mārtānda plateau

lies the town of Islāmābād or by its Hindu Anantanāga.

name Anatnāg. The latter is derived from the great spring of the ANANTANĀGA which issues at the southern end of the town. The Nāga, though no Tirtha of particular repute, is mentioned in the Nilamata, Haracaritacintāmaņi and some Māhātmyas.8 Of the town, however, I cannot find any old notice, and it is in all probability, as its Muhammadan name implies, a later foundation. To the north of the town and on the way to Bavan is the Gautamanāga, named by the Nilamata and the Mārtāņdamāhātmya.

The modern name of the small district which comprised besides Anatnāg the tract immediately south and west of it, is Anyech. This is represented in some Māhātmyas of recent composition by Anekākşa. This name occurs also once in Srivara's Chronicle, but the locality there meant is not certain.4 The valley of the Ar&path or Harşapathā which opens to the east

of Islāmābād, forms the Pargana of Kuțehār. Tīrtha of Kapateśvara.

This name is in all probability connected with

that of the ancient Tirtha of KAPAȚEŚVARA, situated on the southern side of the valley close to the village of Köther. The name of the latter is undoubtedly a derivative of Kapateśvaru, as the analogy of Jyethēr < Jyeştheśvara, Triphar < Tripureśvara, etc., clearly shows.

1 Jonar. 1310. 2 See Āin-j-Akb., ii. p. 358. For the Muhammadan story, see also Vigne i. p. 361.

3 See Nilamata, 902 ; Vitastā,-Trisumdhyāmāhātmya, etc., also Haracar. x. 251 sqq. (Anantabhavana).

Srīv. ii. 184. 6 See for a detailed account, Rājat. i. 32 note.


The place of pilgrimage is the sacred spring of Pāpasūdana (“sinremoving '), situated a short distance above Kōthēr. In it Siva is believed to have shown himself in the disguise (kapata) of pieces of wood floating on the water. The legend is related at length in the Nilamata, and the author of the Haracaritacintāmaņi devotes to it a separate canto which has now become the official Māhātmya of the Tirtha. The importance of the latter is shown by the fact that Kalhaņa mentions it in bis Introduction first among the sacred sites of Kaśmir.

Before him already Albērūni had heard of the story that pieces of wood sent by Mahādeva appear annually “in a pond called Kūdaishahr to the left of the source of the Vitastā, in the middle of the month of Vaišākha.”% Kūdaishahr (asys ), is an easily explained corruption for msgs i.e., *Kavadēśvar, a prakritized form of the name. The map shows that the description of the position of the Tirtha is accurate enough with reference to the Nilanāga as the Vitastā's traditional

The date named by Albērūni is identical with that prescribed for the Kapateśvara Yātrā.

The sacred spring rises in a large circular tank, enclosed by an Ancient stone-wall with steps leading into the water. According to Kalhana's account this enclosure was constructed about a century before his own time at the expense of the well-known King Bhoja of Mālava. The latter is said to have taken a vow to always wash his face in the water of the Pāpasādana spring which he caused to be regularly supplied to him in jars of glass. In my note on the passage I have shown that local tradition at Köthör still retains a recollection of this story though in a rather legendary form. A small temple which stands to the east of the tank, and some other remains probably belong to the period of Bhoja. Abū-l-Fazl too knows, “in the village of Kōtihār, a deep spring surrounded by stone temples. When its water decreases an image of Mahadeva in sandal wood appears.” About four miles to the north-east of Kōthēr and on a branch of

the Arapath river lies the populous village Samāngāsā.

of Sāngas, the ancient SAMĀNGĀSĀ. The modern name can be traced back to Samāngāsā through a course of regular phonetic conversion, one stage of which is preserved in the form Svāngas supplied by the old glossator of the Chronicle. Some old

1 Haracar. xiv. % See India, ii. p. 181. 8 See Rājat, vii. 190 sqq. 4 See Rījat. i. 100; viii. 651. 6 Compare Rūjat. i. 100 note and the analogy of Sanāra > Sār.

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