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carved slabs built into the chief Ziārat of the place attest its antiquity. A short distance above Sāngas we come to another old place. It is the present village of Vutrus which on the authority of the same glossator and the name itself we can safely identify with Kalbaņa’s Utrāsa. ? Uccala and Sussala in their flight from Harşa's coart found a temporary refuge with the Dāmara who resided there.

Turning back to the west we find in the middle of the valley the village of Khondur. An old gloss enables us to identify it with the ancient SKANDAPURA mentioned by Kalhaņa as an Agrahāra of King Gopāditya. More important is Achobal, a large village at the west foot of the ridge which lines the Kuțahār Pargana from the south. It is mentioned in the Chronicle under the name of AKŞAVĀLA. The beautiful springs of the place have often been described since Abū-l-Fažl's time, also by Bernier. The park around them was a favourite camping ground of the Mughal court. The Nilamata calls the spring Akşipālanāga. 113. The Kütahār Pargana is adjoined on the sonth by the dis

trict of Bring which coincides with the valley Pargana of Bring.

of the Bring stream. Its old name cannot be traced; the Lokaprakāśa transcribes the modern designation by Bhråga.

At the western end of the Pargana and about 5 miles to the southwest of Achabal is the village of Lokobavan which an old gloss identifies with the LOKAPUNYA of the Rājatarangiņi. The numerous passages which mention the place agree with this location. The name Lõkabavan applies also to the fine Nāga adjoining the village, and this explains the second part of the present name -bavan (Skr. bhavana). King Lalitāditya is said to have built a town here. A small garden-palace erected in Mughal times near the spring is partly constructed of old materials.

Ascending the Bring valley we come again to an old site at the large village of Bidar. It is certainly the BHEDARA of Kalhaņa who notices here a wealthy Agrahāra of King Bālāditya. A ruined mound in the village and some old sculptures at the neighbouring Brahman village of Hāngalgünd are the only ancient remains now above ground.

I Compare vii. 1254. & See Rājat. i. 340.

8 Compare Rūjat. i. 338. In the translation of the Āin-i-Akb. the name appears as 'Acch Dal', ii. p. 358 ; see Bernier, Travels, p. 413.

• Seo Rājat. iv. 193 note. 5 See above, $ 111,

Rajat. iii, 481,

From Bidar we may pay a passing visit to a small Tirtha which

though I cannot find it mentioned in any old Tirtha of Ardbanārīśvara.

text, may yet claim some antiquity. About 13

miles to the south-east of Biąør lies the village of Nāru in the low hills flanking the valley. It contains a small temple of ancient date which was restored forty years ago by a pious Dogrā official. It stands by the side of a small Nāga at which, according to the local Māhātmya I acquired from the resident Purohita, Siva is worshipped as ARDHANĀRIÁvara, that is, in conjunction with his consort Parvati. Inside the temple is an ancient image of Vişnu with a short Sanskrit inscription said to have been found in a miraculous way at the restoration of the temple. About half a mile to the south-west is a sacred spring known as Svedanāga which seems to have risen originally within a large temple. The remains of the latter lie in shapeless heaps around the spring. The latter is still visited by pilgrims.

It appears to me likely that it is this spot which Abu-l-Fazl wishes to describe in the following notice. After mentioning the Kukar Nāg and Sand brır (see below) among the sacred places of Bring, he says: At a little distance in the midst of a beautiful temple, seven fountains excite the wonderment of the beholder. In the summer-time self. immolating ascetics here heap up a large fire around themselves and with the utmost fortitude suffer themselves to be burned to death."! He then mentions a lofty hill containing an iron mine to the north of this spot. This can only be the hill above Sõp, on the northern side of the Valley and nearly opposite Nõru, from which iron is still extracted at the present time. There is no other Nāga within Bring to which Abū-l-Fazl's description would apply so closely as to the Svedanāga.

The Kukør Nāg, mentioned by Abū-l-Fazl for its good water inciting a healthy appetite, lies about a mile above Biờar. It is a spring of very great volume, referred to in the Trisamdhyāmāhātmya as Kukkuțeśvara. Bring contains one of the holiest of Kaśmir Tirthas in the sacred

spring of the goddess SADHYĀ, also called Tirtha of Trisamdhyā.

Trisardhyā, the modern Sundbrar.% It is situated in a side valley opening to the south of the village of Devalgom, circ. 75° 22' long. 33° 32' lat. The spring of Samdhyā derives its fame as well as its appellation from the fact that during uncertain periods in the early summer it flows, or is supposed to flow, intermittently, three times in the day and three times in the night. Owing to the analogy thus presented to the three-fold recitation of the Gāyatri

I See Ain.;• Akb., ii. p. 356.

See Rajat, i. 33 note.

(Sandhyā), it is held sacred to the goddess Samdhyā. At the season indicated it is visited by a considerable concourse of people.

The small spring, which is usually dry for the greater part of the year, has owing to the curious phenomenon above indicated always enjoyed great fame as one of the wonders of the valley. Kalhaņa duly mentions it immediately after Kapateśvara. The Nilamata too knows it. A bū-l-Fazl describes it in detail, and Dr. Bernier made it a special point to visit this merveille de Cachemire.'! He has observed the phenomenon with his usual accuracy. The ingenious explanation he has recorded of it, shows how closely he had examined the topographical features of the little valley.

Close to the Trisaṁdhyā spring there is another Nāga, sacred to the Seven Rşis, but not sharing the former's peculiar nature. There are no ancient remains in the neighbourhood deserving special notice. 114. To the south of Bring lies the valley of the Sandrạn River

which forms the Pargaña of Shāhābād. Tbis Nīlanåga.

name is of comparatively modern origin, as Abū-l-Fazl still knows the tract as Vēr.: This designation still survives in the designation Vērnāg, i.e., 'the Nāga of Vēr,' popularly given to the fine spring which we have already noticed as the habitation of the NILANĀGA and the traditional source of the Vitastā. A bū-)-Fazl saw still to the east of it 'temples of stone.' These have now disappeared, their materials having been used probably for the construction of the fine stone-enclosure which Jahangir built round the spring. The deep blue colour of the water which collects in the spring-basin, may possibly account for the location of the Nilanāga in this particular fountain. Kalhaņa’s reference to the “circular pond” from which the Vitastā rises, shows that the spring had also in ancient times an artificial enclosure similar to the present one.3 Reference has already been made to the sacred spring of Vithavutur

only about one mile to the north-west of Vitastātra.

Vērnāg. The small village near by is mentioned by Kalhaņa as a town under the name of VITASTĀTRAS Aśoka is said to have erected there numerous Stāpas. Within the Dharmāranya Vihāra there stood a lofty Caitya built by him, but of these structures no remains can now be traced above ground. Vitastātra could never have been a large town as the ground is too confined. But some importance is assured to the site by the Bānahāl route which leads past

1 Compare Āin-i-Akb., ii. pp. 355 sq. ; BERNIER, Travels, pp. 410 sqq. % See Āin-i-Akb., ii. pp. 361, 370. 8 See Rajat, i. 28. * See Rajat, i. 102 note.

it. This pass and its ancient name Bāņaśālā we have already spoken of.

Of other old localities PAÑCAHASTĀ, the present Pânzath, has already been referred to as the site of one of the traditional sources of the Vitastā. Kalhaņa mentions it in connection with a Matha which Sūravarman, Avantivarman's minister, built here. A pretty valley which opens to the south of Pānzath, is now known by the name of its chief village Ruzul. The latter is mentioned by Jonarāja as RĀJOLAKA.8 About three miles higher up this valley is the Nāga of VĀSUKI. It is mentioned in the Nilamata and other old texts, but does not appear to have ever been an important Tirtha.. 116. The Pargaņa of Diva sar which adjoins Shāhābād-Vēr on the

west, may be roughly described as comprising District of

the tract of alluvial plain drained by the Dovasarasa.

Veśau (Visokā). By its ancient name of DEVASARASA it is often mentioned in the Rājatarangiņi and other Chronicles. Being extensively irrigated by canals drawn from the Visokā it is very fertile. This accounts for the great part which the Dāmaras or feudal landholders of Devasarasa played during the weak reigos of the latter kings. No certain reference to a specific locality within this tract can be traced in our old texts. But it seems probable that Pārevisoka, repeatedly named in Kalhaņa's Chronicle, must be looke for within Devasarasa ; the name means literally beyond the Visokā.' 6

The fertile valleys descending to the right bank of the Visokā from that portion of the Pir Pantsāl Range which lies between the Konser Nāg Peak and the Mohi Pass, form a small district of their known in recent times by the double name Khur-Nārøvāv. The first part of this name is taken from the large village of Khur situated about two miles from the Visokā, circ. 74° 56'' 45" long. 33° 37' lat. It is marked as • Koori' on the larger Survey map. The name Kheri which we find used by Kalhaņa and Srivara for the designation of the tract, is in all probability the older form of Khur. It seems that in later Hinda times the administration of Kheri, perhaps as a royal allodial domain, formed a special charge. Kalhaņa often refers to the Kherīkārya as a high state-office. The Sikhs and Dogrās who established Jāgirs for members of the reigning family in Khur-Nārøvāv, may thus have followed an earlier arrangement. The only localities in this little district that are known to us by


1 Compare above, § 41.
% See Rajat. v. 24.
B See Jonar. (Bo. ed.), 90.
* See Nilamata, 901.
6 Compare Rājat, viji. 504 note.
6 Compare Rājat, iv. 5 note.
7 Compare regarding the identification of Kheri, Rajat, i. 335 note.

their old names, are GODAARĀ and HastiśĀLĀ, Godharā-Hastiśālā.

the present Gudar and Asti hēl. These two villages are situated close together, on a branch of the Visokā near the eastern limits of Khur-Nāra vāv. Kalbaņa mentions the “ Agrahāra of Godharā-Hastiśālā' as a foundation of King Godhara. The old gloss which transcribes these local names by Godhar-Astihil enabled me to identify the places intended.

A small stream which falls into the Visokā at Gudar is known by the name of Godāvari and forms a Tirtha of some repute among the Brahmans of the neighbouring districts. In the Māhātmya of the Tirtha the site of the village is called Godara, and its name connected with the legend of the appearance of the Godāvari. The local tradition heard by me on the spot tells of a town which King Gudar is supposed to have founded here. It is possible that the name of King Godhara, which we know Kalhaņa took indirectly from Helārāja's · List of Kings,' rests on no better foundation than this long-surviving local tradition. There are no ancient remains traceable above ground at Gudar, and the locality is far too confined for a larger settlement.

The Naubandhana Tirtha and the Kramasaras or Kóngar Nāg south of this district have already been previously noticed. 116. To the north of Divagar lies the considerable district of

Ād vin extending from the western end of District of Karāla

Khur-Nāra vāv to the lower course of the (Ardhavana).

Visokā. Its present name is derived from that of the large village of Ādovin, which lies on the left bank of the Visokā, about three miles south-west of Vijąbror. In the form of Ardhavana this name is found already in a passage of Jonarāja's Chronicle, supplied by the new edition. The ancient designation of the district, however, was KARĀLA. This is used by Kalhana when speaking of the Suvarnamaņikulyā, the present Sunmạni Kul, which has already been referred to as irrigating part of Advin.

In the lower portion of the district and on the left bank of the Visokā, we have the ancient Katimuşa, the present village of Kaimuh.

1 For details compare Rajat. i. 96 note.

2 Regarding the unhistorical character of the royal names which Kalhaņa inserted on Helārāja's authority, see Rajat. i. 86 note. They seem to be all of an eponymic character.

8 See Jonar. (Bo. ed.) 1330.
* See Rújat, i. 97 note, and above, $ 78.

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