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The place is mentioned by Kalhaņa as an Agrahāra founded by Tuñjina I., and contains some old remains built into its chief Ziārat.1

Part of Ādavin lies on an alluvial plateau. The northernmost portion of this Udar seems to have been formed into a separate Pargaña after Zainu-l-'ābidin had constructed there extensive irrigation chan. nels. From the small town of Jainapurī founded by him the new subdivision took the name of Zain&por or JAINAPURA. At the east foot of the Zainạpor Udar lies the village of Vạchi (map Woochi') which on the authority of an old gloss may be identified with VAŚCIKĀ (or Vaścika), an Agrahāra founded by Gopāditya.3

The Pargana which joins on to Āạøvin in the north-east, is now known as Böt (map' Batoo '). Its ancient name is unknown. The only old locality I can trace in it is the village of Sidau, 74° 51' long. 33° 41' lat., the ancient SIDDHAPATHA.It has given its name to the route previously mentioned which leads to the Būdil and Kõnsør Nāg Passes.

It is curious that we find no old mention whatever of Supiyan, a considerable town, which is now the trade emporium for the Pir Pantsāl route. In this character Supiyan has replaced the ancient Sarapura or Hürøpõr, but the change must be a comparatively recent one.

SŪRAPURA which we have already noticed as the Kaśmir terminus

of the Pir Pantsāl route, lies some seven miles

higher up on the Rembyārą.6 It received its name from the minister Sūravarman who built it in the time of Avanti. varman and transferred to it the watch-station or · Dranga' of the route. The position of the latter is marked by a spot known as Ilāhi Darwāza, a short distance above Hürępor.6 Sūrapura must have been a place of considerable extent as ruins of old habitations can be traced on the river banks for over two miles below the present Hür&pār. It evidently retained its importance down to Akbar's time. For it is regularly mentioned by all the later Chronicles in connection with marches and traffic by the Pir Pantsāl route. The ancient remains of the place have been described by me in my notes on the latter.?

Our previous account of the old localities on the way to the Pir Pantrāl Pass makes it unnecessary for us to proceed uow further in this direction. Descending, then, by the Rembyār? we come on its left bank to the village of Dēgām situated about one and a half miles to the west of Supiyan. It is the DeGrāma of the Rājatarangiņi and the site of the Kapālamocana Tirtha. At the spring of the latter Siva is supposed to have cleaned himself from the sin attaching to him after the cutting-off of Brahman's head (kapāla). The Tirtha is old, because the Haracaritacintāmaņi mentions it twice. There are but few ancient remains at the sacred site, and the extant Māhātmya is evidently not of old date. It calls the village by the name of Drigrāma and knows the modern Supiyan by the name of Sürpāyana.

1 Compare Räjat. ii. 55 note.
% See Jonar. (Bo. ed.) 1144 sq.; Sriv. iii. 194 ; Fourth Chron. 360, 383.
3 Compare Rajat. i. 343 note.
4 See Rājat, viii. 557.

6 Regarding Surapura and its old sites, compare Rājat. Note D (iii. 227); v. 39 note; also J. A. S. B., 1895, pp. 381 sqq.

6 See above, § 42.
7 See J. A. 8. B., 1895, p. 385.

J. 1. 24

117. The villages which lie at the foot of the pine-clad spurs descending into the valley west and north-west of S'upiyan, formed until recent times a small distinct Pargaņa known as Sūparsāmün. Abū-lFaưl mentions it (Sõparsāman), but I am not able to trace it in our older texts.

To the north of this tract and of Băț extends the Pargana of Sukru.

Its old name is unknown. Here at the foot

of the hills, we have the ancient KALYĀŅAPURA, represented by the present village of Kalampor, situated 74° 54' long. 33° 48' lat. It was founded by Kalyāṇadevi, a queen of Jayā pida.s Being on the high road from the Pir Pantsāl Pass to Srinagar, it was repeatedly the scene of battles fought with invaders from that direction.

At Kalyāṇapura there was in Kalhaņa's time the splendid countryseat of a powerful Dámara. The large village of Drābagām, some three miles north of Kalampor, is mentioned as DRĀBHAGRĀMA by Srivara, along with Kalyāṇapura, in the description of a battle which was fought between the two places.6 High up in the valley of the Birnai stream which debouches at

Drābagām from the south-west, is the site of Tirtha of Bhedā.

an ancient Tirtha which though now completely forgotten must have ranked once amongst the most popular in Kaśmir. In Kalhaņa's introduction there is named, along with Trisamdhyā, Svayambhū, S'äradā and other famous sites, “the hill of Bheda (Bhedagiri) sanctified by the Gangodbheda spring." There the goddess Sarasvati was believed to have shown herself as a swan in a lake situated on the summit of the hill. This Tirtha has long ago ceased to be visited by pilgrims, and all recollection regarding its position has been lost to Pandit tradition. Fortunately the old Māhātmya of the sacred lake has survived in a single copy. With the belp of some indications furnished by it and an opportune notice of Abū-l-Fazl, I was able to make a search for this ancient Tirtha which ultimately led to its discovery at the present Buďmbrăr in the valley above iudicated.

1 Compare Rījat. vii. 266.
% See Haracar. X. 249 ; xiv. 111.
3 See Rajat. iv. 483 note.
4 See Rūjat. viii. 1261 899.; Sriv. iv. 466 899.
6 See Rājat. viii. 2318 sqq.

8 See Sriv. iv. 467. For a miniature temple extant at Drābagām, compare Bishop Cowie's note, J. A. S. B., 1866, p. 117.

For the detailed evidence regarding this identification I must refer to my note on Kalhaņa's passage. Here a brief reference to the topographical peculiarity of the site will suffice. The Māhātmya describes the lake sacred to the goddess Sarasvati-Bhedā as situated on the summit of a hill, and Gangodbheda as a spring flowing from it. At Budobrăr, a small Gujar hamlet, which occupies the position marked by BHEDAGiri on the map, I found an ancient stone-lined tank fed by a spring on the top of a small hillock. The latter rises about seventy feet above the level of tlie narrow valley in which it is situated. From the side of the hillock issues a spring which is the natural outflow of the tank and exactly corresponds to the description given of Gangodbbeda. The name Budobrąr is the direct derivative of Bhedādevī, 'the goddess Bhedā,' the popular designation of the Tirtha found in the Mābātmya; -brār < Skr. bhattārikā is the equivalent of devi as in Sundabrır, Harobrar and other names.

The water of the spring which fills the tank, is said to keep warm in the winter. This accounts evidently for the story told in the Mābātmya that snow never lies on the ground around the sacred tank. Also Abu-l-Fazl's notice of the Tirtha mentions this particular feature: “Near Shukroh (Sukru) is a low bill on the summit of which is a fountain which flows throughout the year and is a place of pilgrimage for the devout. The snow does not fall on this spur.'

Also Srivara helped to guide my search in the direction of Budbrăr and to confirm the subsequent identification. He mentions the route through Bhedāvana, “the forest of Bheļā,' as the line of retreat taken by the troops who after their defeat in the above-mentioned engagement near Drābagām were fleeing towards Rajauri.S A glance at the map shows that the thickly wooded valley of Bud brār is meant here. For a force beaten near Dråbägām it affords the most direct and safest retreat to the Pir Pantsāl Pass and hence to Rajauri. The route leading through the valley joins the Imperial Road' at Dubji and is shown on the map.

1 See Rajat. i. 35, Note A.

See Ain-i. Akb., ii. p. 362. 8 Compare Sriv. iv. 496 and the preceding narrative.


Returning once more to the plain we have yet to notice two other old localities of Sukru. Bilau (map · Belloh ’) about four miles northeast of Drābagām is probably the village of BILĀVA ' once mentioned by Kalhaņa. Within a mile of it lies the village Sun?sāmil which we may safely identify with the SUVARŅASĀNURA of the Rājatarangini, in view of the resemblance of the names and the repeated mention of the latter place together with Kalyāṇapura.? 118. East of Sukru towards the Vitastā stretches the Pargaņa of

Savur (map Showra'). The earlier form of Districts of śāvur and Chrāțh.

its name cannot be traced. Its northern part

is formed by the alluvial plateau known as the Naunagar Udar. This latter is twice referred to as NAUNAGARA in Kalhaņa's Chronicle. The village of Pāyer which lies at the foot of the Udar at its north-western end contains a well-preserved little temple often described by European travellers. Nothing is known regarding the original name of the locality.

To the north of Sukru we have the district of Chrāth (shown by name on the larger survey map). It extends from the hills above Rāmuh in a north-easterly direction to the left bank of the Vitastā. Its old name is restored in Pandit Sāhibrām's Tirthasamgraba as * Srirāştra, but I do not know on what authority. Rāmuh, first correctly identified by Prof. Bühler with Kalhaņa's RĀMUŞA,6 is a considerable village on the high road from Supiyan to Srinagar. It is first mentioned as Agrahāra, founded by a queen of Tuñjīna I. A small spring at the northern end of the village, called Dhananāga, is visited as a Tirtha and contains some fragments of ancient sculptures, The temple erected by the Brahman family of the Dars which now holds Rāmuh as a Jāgir, does not seem to mark an old site.

A short distance to the north of Rāmuh rises an alluvial plateau which is crossed by the road to Srinagar. It is known as Gūs Udar, from the village of Gūs situated at its eastern foot, about two miles from Rāmuh. The place is mentioned as GUSIKĀ in Srivara's


1 See Räjat. vii. 1016.

% See Rājat, vii. 1519 note ; sung 'gold' is the regular Kś. derivative of Skr. suvarna.

3 See Rājat. vii. 358.

Compare, e.g., CUNNINGHAM, J. A. 8. B., 1848, pp. 254 sqq. I am unable to explain why the place figures in all European accounts as Pāyech, Pā Yech, etc. VIGNE, ii. 41, first uses this form which is locally quite unknown, and does not fail to explain it by one of his naïve etymologies.

6 Räjat. ii. 55; Report, p. 7. Medial ş becomes in Kś. regularly h; comp. Katimuşa > Kaimuh, Khonamuşa > Khunomoh, etc.

Chronicle which also knows the plateau by the name Gusikoddāra. At the other end of Chrāțh towards the Vitastā lies the large village of Ratanpõr, 75° 1' lovg. 33° 55' lat., which in all probability represents the RATNĀPURA of the Rājatarangiņi. The latter was founded in Kalhaņa's time by Queen Ratnādevi who also constructed there a fine Matha.

With Chrāțh may be mentioned two localities on the left bank of the Vitastā though in recent times they were counted with the riveraine Pargaņa of Sāiru-l-Mawāzi' Bālā. Gūrépūr, a small village opposite to the foot of Mount Vastârvan, is identified by an old gloss with GOPALAPURA which, according to Kalbana, was founded by Queen Sugandhā (A.D. 904-6).

Lower down on the river is the large village Kākļpor which forms as it were the riverside station or port for Supiyan. A note from the hand of Paņạit Rājānaka Ratnakaộtha who wrote about the middle of the 17th century the Codex Archetypus of the Rājatarangiņi, identifies UTPALAPURA with Kāk’por. Utpalapura was founded by Utpala, an uncle of King Cippața-Jayāpida, in the early part of the 9th century. If this identification is correct, one of the ruined temples extant at Kāk”põr and noticed already by Gen. Cunningham, may be the shrine of Vişņu Utpalasvāmin mentioned by Kalhaņa in connection with the foundation of Utpalapura. Jonarāja also knows the latter place and records a late restoration of its Vişņu temple. 119. North of Chrāțh we come to the district of Nāgām which is one of considerable extent.

Its old name Districts of Nāgām

NĀGRĀMA is often mentioned in the later Chroand Yech.

nicles. The only old locality wbich I can trace in it, is the village of Ārigom, situated 74° 45' long. 33° 56' lat. It is the HĀDIGRĀMA of Kalhaņa, mentioned as an Agrahāra of Gopāditya and as the scene of several fights in the Chronicler's own time.7

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1 Sriv. iv. 532, 465, 592 891. ; uddira is the Skr. original of the Ks. term udar, see Rājat, note viii. 1427.

% See Rüjat. viii. 2434.
8 See Rajat. v. 244 note.

4 See Rājat. iv. 695 note. The learned copyist's note is in a copy of the Kşetrupālapaddhati seen by me in 1895 in the possession of a Kasmir Brahman resident at Lahore.

6 See Jonar. (Bo. ed.) 111 sqq., 369, 1142.

6 Compare Jonar. (Bo. ed.) 661 ; Sriv. ii. 10; iii. 24, 430; iv. 349; Fourth Chron. 258, etc.

? See Rājat. i. 340 note. The old glossator on this passage renders Hādigrāma correctly by Adegrăm.

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