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the beginning of the present century are referred to by Mr. Vigne and Dr. Falconer. Abū-l-Fazl too mentions the phenomenon at Soyam.'?
Considering the rarity of the occasions when this manifestation of the 'Self-created Fire' is observed and the pilgrimage performed, the total absence of ancient remains cannot surprise us. There is, however, a Māhātmya of the Tirtha, and the latter is also referred to in the Nilamata. A pilgrimage which King Uccala (A.D. 1101-11) made to Svayambhū gives Kalhaņa occasion to acquaint us with some localities of the neighbourhood. The king who was stopping in Kramarājya, is said to have started for the village of VARHATACAKRA with a small retinue to see the miracle there. On his way which took him past the village of KAMBALESVARA, he was set upon in a deep mountain gorge by robbers from whom he escaped only with difficulty.
I believe, the places mentioned in connection with this adventure, can still be identified without difficulty. Varbațacakra is probably the present Tsakuvadar, tsake being the ordinary Kś. form for Skr. cakra and vadar the phonetic derivative of Varhaţa.. Cases of village names in which the two component parts, being originally distinct names, can alternate in their position, are by no means unfrequent in Kaśmir. Thus we have now Dārā-Sādopor and Sad.põr-Dārā, etc.
In Kambalesvara we may safely recognize the present village of Krambhar, situated about six miles north-east of Svayambhū; for the ending -har as the derivative of Skr. -eśvara, compare Triphar < Tripuresvara, etc. The way from Krambhar to Svayambhū leads through the valley of the Panjtar stream. The latter as I convinced myself by personal inspection on a tour in 1892, passes above Rājpār a narrow thickly-wooded gorge. The path which follows the tortuous course of the stream at the bottom of the gorge, offers excellent opportunities for an ambuscade such as described by Kalhaņa.
Badarkāl, a small village, about four miles south-east of Krambhar, has a small local Tirtha marked by a spring and some old Lingas. It is visited on the pilgrimage to Svayambhū and mentioned by the name of BHADRAKĀLĪ in the Māhātmya of the latter.
126. The Pargaņa of Uttar stretching along the foot of the range District of Uttara.
towards the Kişangangā, forms the extreme north-west of the Kaśmir Valley. A passage of the Rājatarangiọi records its ancient name UTTARA, and refers also to GhosA as a locality sitaated in it.' The place meant is undoubtedly the present Guş situated in the centre of Uttar, near the confluence of the Kāmil River and the stream coming from Lõlau. It is the startingpoint for the Sāradā pilgrimage and is mentioned correctly as Ghoșa in the Sāradāmāhātmya.
I See VIGNE, Travels, ii. p. 280 ; LAWRENCE, Valley, p. 42.
4 For medial Skr. r > Ks. d, compare e.g., Bhattāraka[matha > Brædi[mar for > , e.g. Kāşthavăța > Kaş!øvár.
6 For detailed evidence on the phonetic points alluded to, see Rājat, viii, 250 note.
About ten miles higher up the Kāmil river lies the village of Panz gām, circ. 74° 7' long. 34° 29' lat. I take its position from Major Bates’ Gazetteer; the 'Atlas of India' map does not show the place. It is in all probability identical with PĀÑCIGRĀMI, mentioned by Kalhaņa in connection with the surrender of the pretender Bhoja. I have not been able to visit this portion of the district, and Major Bates' reference to Panz'gām attracted my attention only after the preparation of my map.3
In the extreme north-east of Uttar and within a mile of each other, we have the old villages of Drang and Hāy.hõm, referred to by Kalhaņa under their ancient designations of DRAŃGA and HĀYĀŚRAMA.* The latter place, as its name shows, marks the position of an old frontier watch-station towards the Kişangangā. We have already seen that there is a route leading past it to Sardi, the ancient Tirtha of Sáradā situated on tbat river.
Dranga and Hāyāśrama are both mentioned by Kalhaņa in connec. tion with the siege of the Siraḥšilā castle which took place in his own time. A brief reference may therefore be made here both to this stronghold and the neighbouring shrine of Sāradā, though they are both situated outside the limits of the Kaśmir Valley. 127. The introduction of the Rājatarangiņi mentions the temple
of the goddess Sāradā amongst the foremost The Tīrtha of Sāradā.
Tirthas of Kaśmir. It was well known even far beyond the frontiers of Kaśmir. Albērūni had heard of it, and a story recorded in a Jaina life of the great grammarian Hemacandra proves that its fame had spread oven to far-off Gujrāt.
I See Rajat. vi. 281.
8 There seems to be good reason to suspect that TÅRAMÜLAKA, a place repeatedly referred to in connection with Bhojā’s last campaign, lay somewhere in or near Uttar. Unfortunately this locality which is of importance also for other portions of Kalbaņa's narrative, has not yet been identified ; see note vii. 1307.
For Hayasrama, Bee Rājat. viii. 2937 note; for Dranga, viii. 2507 note, also Note B, i. 37.
6 The position and history of the temple of Sāradā have been fully disoussed in Note B, i. 37.
• See India, i. p. 117.
Notwithstanding this former celebrity the Sāradā shrine is now almost completely forgotten by the Pandits of Srinagar and the great mass of the Brahman population of the Valley. Fortunately, bowever, tradition had been more tenacious in the immediately adjoining tracts of Kamrāz. Guided by it I was able to ascertain the position of the ancient Tirtha at the present Sardi, situated circ. 74° 15' long. 34° 48' late, on the right bank of the Kişangangā.
My note on Rājat. i. 37 (B) gives a detailed account of the tour which in 1892 led me to the Tirtha as well as a description of the ancient temple still extant at the site. The situation of the shrine corresponds exactly to Kalhaņa's description. Immediately in front of it the sacred stream of the MADAUMATI falls into the Kişangangā, while another confluence, that with the SARASVATI river coming from the north, is also visible from the temple.
In Jonarāja's time the shrine was still sufficiently popular to attract a visit even from Sultān Zainu-l-'ābidin. Soon afterwards apparently the miracle-working image of the goddess was destroyed. Abū-lFazl, however, still notes the sanctity of the site and correctly indicates its position on the bank of the Madhumati.'
The subsequent neglect of this Tirtha müst be ascribed chiefly to the obstacles to the pilgrimage which arose from the troubled political condition of the Upper Kişangangā Valley. The Bomba chiefs of the latter had made themselves independent in the later Mughal and Pathan times. Their predatory inroads often threatened the adjacent tracts of Kaśmir while their own territory became practically inaccessible to peaceful pilgrims. It is only since the advent of the Sikhs that the pilgrimage to Säradā's seat was revived. It is probable that the diffi. culties here briefly indicated must be held to account for the several substitute Tirthas of Sāradā which are now to be found in various parts of Kaśmir proper. My visit to the old 'Sáradāsthāna' also enabled me to identify with
certainty the site of the SIRANGILĀ Castle. The Sirahsilā Castle.
latter had been the scene of a memorable siege by King Jayasimha's troops which Kalhaņa describes at length.3 The accurate topographical data furnished in this account prove clearly that the castle occupied the top of the steep ridge which projects into the Kişangaigā valley about two and a half miles below the Sāradā temple.
1 Jonar. (Bo. ed.) 1056–71. This visit apparently took place A.D. 1422.
8 Ain-j-Akb., ii. pp. 365 sq. Abū-l-Fazl places Sārada's stone temple “at two days' distance from Hãehāmūn," i.e. Hãyqhom.
8 Rājat. viii. 2492-2709. The position of Siraḥfilà and the evidence for its identity with the 'Games Ghāți' hill have been fully discussed in my Note L, viii. 2492.
The several incidents of the siege, in particular those connected with the attempted escape of the pretender Bhoja, became at once easily intelligible on a close inspection of this site. The ridge bears now the name of Ganeś Ghāți, from a curious rock formation on its side which resembles the head of an elephant and is accordingly worshipped as a "Svayambhū' representation of the elephant-faced god. It is very probable that the older name Siraḥśilā which means literally 'the rock of the head,' owed its origin also to this very rock. 128. Returning from our excursion to the Kişangangā and the
confines of the Dard country, we enter imDistricts of Lolau, Zain@gir.
mediately to the east of Drang-Hāyhom the
Pargana usually called Lõlāb. Kaśmiri name is Lolau, derived from Skr. LAULĀHA. In the picturesque valley which forms this district, no old localities can be specified.
Lūlau is adjoined on the south by the Pargana of Zain!gir which comprises the fertile Karēwa tract between the Volur and the left bank of the Pohur River. It received its present name from Zainu-l-'ābidin who is credited with having carried irrigation canals from the Pohur to the Udar ground of JAINAGIRI. The earlier name of this tract can no longer be traced.
The chief place in it is the town of Sõpūr, the ancient SUYYAPURA, the foundation of which by Suyya, Avantivarman's engineer, has already been mentioned. Sõpūr which lies a short distance below the point where the Vitastā leaves the Volur, has retained its importance to this day, and is still a town of over 8000 inhabitants. It has during recent times been the official head-quarters for the whole of Kamrāz. From a passage of Srivara it appears that this had been the case already at an earlier period. Relating a great conflagration which destroyed Suyyapura in Zainu-l-'ābidin's time, this Chronicler tells us that in it perished the whole of the official archives relating to Kramarājya. The royal residence, however, escaped and the town itself was again built up by the king in great splendour. Of this, however, nothing has remained; nor does the town now show older remains of any interest.
The suggested identity of the village Zulur (map Zohlar') in the north-west part of Zain#gir with JĀLORA once mentioned as a foundation of King Janaka, is doubtful, resting only on the resemblance of
I Compare Ràjat. vii. 1241 note.
The large village of Bumai (map 'Bamhai'), situated 74° 30' long. 34° 22' lat., may be Kalhana's BhĪMATIKĀ. The name Bumai can be traced back without difficulty to the older form ; but the context of the single passage in which Bhimatikā is mentioned, does not supply any evidence as to its location.' Round the north shore of the Volur lake there stretches in a semi
circle the district of Khuyhõm. Its ancient District of Khuyāśrama.
name is given by Kalbaņa as KuŪYĀŚRAMA
while Srivara and the Lokaprakāśa, with a slight variation, call it Khoyāśrama. The old route which led up to the Madhumati stream and over the Pass of DUGDHAGHĀTA or Dudokhut into the Darad territory on the Kişangangā, has been already fully described. 3
In connection with a Darad invasion which was directed into Kaśmir by this route, we read of MĀTRGRĀMA as the place where the invading force encamped. This is certainly the present village of Mātragom situated close to the foot of the Trāgabal Pass, circ. 74° 43' long. 34° 28' lat. It lies just at the point where the route along the Madhumati debouches into an open valley, and is the first place where a larger camp could conveniently be formed.
The tract on the north-east shore of the Volur appears in old times to have formed a separate small sub-division called Evenaka. It is once mentioned by Kalbaņa, and also referred to in the Tirthasamgraha.5 But the evidence is not sufficient for a certain location. To it may possibly have belonged also the village of Sudorkoth, circ. 74° 43' long. 34° 18' lat., which Srivara refers to by the name of SAMUDRAKOȚA.6 129. We have now reached the vicinity of the Sind Valley which
forms the largest of the Pargaņas of Kaśmir. District of Lahara.
The district now known as Lār comprises the whole of the valleys drained by the Sind and its tributaries as well as the alluvial tract on the right bank of that river after its entry into the great Kaśmir plain.
Its ancient name was LAHARA, and by this it is mentioned in very
1 Compare Rājat, vii. 6; as to the relation of Bumai < Bhimatikā comp. Bum!. [zu : Bhima[lesava.
% See Rājat, viii. 2695-98 note.
J. 1. 27.