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numerous passages of the Rājatarangiņi and the later Chronicles. The lands of the district seem to have been from early times in the hands of great territorial nobles. One family of Dāmaras resident in Lahara was powerful enough for its members to play the part of true kingmakers during a succession of reigns following after Harsa. It is probable that the great trade-route to Ladākh and Central Asia which

passes through the district, added already in old times to its wealth and importance.

In the inidst of the wide water-logged tract of the Sind Delta we find the ancient Tirtha of TŪLAMŪLYA at the village now known as Tullmul, situated 74° 48' long. 34° 13' lat. The Parohita corporation of Tūlamülya is represented as a well-to-do and influential body already under King Jayāpida. The large spring of Tūlamülya is sacred to Mahārājñi, a form of Durgā, and is still held in great veneration by the Brahman population of Srinagar. It is supposed to exhibit from time to time miraculous changes in the colour of its water, which are ascribed to the manifestation of the goddess. Owing to its convenient position the Tirtha attracts large numbers of pilgrims from the capital. Abū-l-Fazl notices the place and its marshy surroundings. About two and a half miles to the east of Tulómul lies the village of Dudorhom, on the main branch of the Sind which becomes here navigable. It is repeatedly spoken of by Srivara under its old name of DUGDHĀŚRAMA.

Ascending the valley we come to the large village of Manigām, situated a short distance from the right bank of the river, 74° 52' long. 34° 17' lat. It is the MAYAGRĀMA of Kalhaņa's Chronicle, mentioned in connection with a campaign of Bhikṣācara in Lahara. In the time of King Samgrāmarāja (A.D. 1003–28) Mayagrāma gave its name to a separate fund (Muyagrāmīņagañja) which Queen Srilekhā had established evidently with the revenue assigned from this village.? Mạñi. gām-Mayagrāma still owns a large area of excellent rice-fields. The village itself contains no ancient remains; but a short distance above it, at the foot of the spur which descends from a high alp known as

i Compare for the identification of Lār and Lahara, note Rājat. v. 51. The authors of the St. Petersburg Dictionary were already aware of it ; see P. W. 8. v. LAHARA.

2 Compare regarding the political part played by Janakacandra, Gargacandra and their descendants, Rājat. viii. 15 sqq., 354 sqq., 502 sqq., etc. For an earlier instance of Damara power in Lahara, see p. 51 sqq.

s See Rājat. iv. 638 note. 4 Ain-i-Akb., ii. p. 364.

Srīv. iv. 110, 136, 263. * See Rājat. viii, 729. 7 Compare Räjut, vii. 126.

Mohand Marg, there is an ancient stone-lined tank filled by a ane spring known as Vuțaśan Nāg. This is visited as a Tirtha by the Brahmans of the neighbourhood and is also mentioned under the name of Occaiḥśīrņa Nāga in the Haramukuta and several other Māhātmyas. About a mile above the village the high-road leading up the valley passes a shapeless mound of large slabs which undoubtedly belonged to an ancient temple.

130. About four miles above Mạñigām on the left bank of the Tirtha of Cīramocana.

Sind we reach a site which has enjoyed sanctity

from an early period. Close to the village of Prang (not shown on map) situated circ. 74° 55' 30" long. 34° 16' 45'' lat., a small branch of the Kānkanai River (Kanakavāhinī) flows into the Sind. This confluence is pow visited by the pilgrims proceeding to the Haramukuța lakes as one of the chief Tirthas on the route. In the modern Haramukuța Māhātmya it is designated as Karankatirtha. But I have shown that it is in reality identical with the ancient Tirtha of CIRAMOCANA mentioned in the Rājatarangiņi, the Nilamata and the old Nandikgetramāhātmya.!

The Kānkapai or Kanakavāhini which is always named together with Ciramocana, is a sacred river as it carries down the waters of the holy Gangā-lake below the Haramukuţa Peaks. This explains the importance attached to this 'Samgama.' The Haramukuța Māhātmya which shows its comparatively recent origin by many of its local names, metamorphoses the old Kanavābini into Karaikanadi and consequently also changes the name of its confluence into Kararkatirtha.3 King Jalauka, the son of Asoka, whom the Chronicle represents as a fervent worshipper of Siva Blūtesa aud of Nandiśa, is said to have ended his days at Ciramocana. Our survey bas already taken us to the sacred sites of BATTEGA and

JYEŞTHARUDRA marked by the ruined temples Tirthas of Bhūtesa,

at the present Buth'śër high up in the Kānka. Jyeştharudra.

nai Valley. They are closely connected with the Tirthas of NANDIKŞETRA below the Haramukuța glaciers which have also been described. The village of Vāngath, which is the highest permanently inhabited place in the valley, lies about two miles below Buthiśēr. It is named VASIŞTHĀŚRAMA in the Māhātmyas and believed to mark the residence of the Rşi Vasiştha. Allusions in the Rājatarangiņi and Nilamata show that this legendary location is of old date.

1 See Rājat, i. 149-150 note. 3 See above, $ 57. 3 Regarding the local nomenclature of this Māhātmya, see above, $ 31. * See above, $ 57; also Räjat. notes i. 36, 107, 113; v. 55–59. • Compare Rājat. viii, 2430 note.

At the mouth of Kānkanai Valley, and about two miles to the north-east of Ciramocana, is the hamlet of Bāravul which Kalhaņa mentions as an Agrahāra of King Jalauka under the name of VĀRABĀLA. A large sculptured Linga base which I found here in 1891, shows the antiquity of the place. 131. Returning to the main valley we come, about three miles

above Ciramocana, to the large village of Upper Sind Valley.

Kangan situated on the right bank on the Sind. It is, perhaps, identical with KANKAŅAPURA which Queen Diddā is said to have founded in commemoration of her husband Kşemagupta, known by the epithet of 'Kankaņavarşa.'' No old localities can be identified with certainty in the Sind Valley until we reach the village of Gagangir, situated two marches above Kangan, circ. 75° 15' long. 34° 18' lat. This is undoubtedly the GAGANAGIRI of Jonarāja, and the Fourth Chronicle.3 The place is mentioned in both texts in connection with invasions which were made into Kaśmir over the Zoji-Lā Pass. The first was that of the Bhautta Riñcana, the second the famous inroad of the Mughal leader Mirzā Haidar (A.D. 1532). The account wbich the latter himself has left us of his exploit, fully explains the special reference made to Gaganagiri by the Hindu Chronicler. About three miles above Gagangir two rocky spurs descend from

opposite sides into the valley and reduce it to Defile of Dhudāvana.

a narrow gorge (see map). The passage of

this defile was until recent improvements of the road distinctly difficult, as large fallen rocks blocked the narrow space between the right bank of the river and the high cliffs rising above it. It is at this point of the valley which Mirzā Haidar calls “the narrow defile of Lār,' that the Kaśmir chiefs vainly attempted to stop the brave Turks of the invader's advanced guard.

Kalhaņa's Chronicles shows that the defile here indicated had witnessed fighting already at an earlier epoch. When King Sussala's forces had driven Gargacandra, the great feudal chief, from his seats in Lahara, we are told that the Dāmara with his followers retired to the mountain called DHUDĀVANA. There he was long besieged by the troops

1 See Rajat. i. 121 note.
% See Rājat. vi. 301.

8 Compare Jonar. (Bo. ed.), 197, and Fourth Chron. 316. The old name of the locality ought to have been entered in the map. The Bombay edition of the Fourth Chron. wrongly reads gamananiryanta for gaganagiryanta of the MSS.

• See Tārīkh-i Rashidi, p. 423. Mr. Elias in his note on the passage has quite correctly identified the defile meant by his author. The Fourth Chronicle names the autumn of the Laukika year [460]8 as the date of the event which agrees exactly with Mirzā Haidar's A.H. 939 Jamad II (December, 1532 A.D.),

“of the king who was encamped at the foot of the mountain.” In my note on the passage I have shown that the name Dhudāvana survives in Dürün Nār (map 'Darnar'), the appellation of the high spur which descends into the Sind Valley from the south between Gagangir and Sunamarg. It is exactly at the foot of this spur tbat the river passes through the gorge above described. The position taken up by the king's opponent is thus fully explained.

Gagangir being already 7400 feet above the sea, is the last permanently inhabited place in the valley. Some twenty-five miles bigher up we arrive at the Zoji-Lā Pass. Here we have reached the limits of Kaśmir as well as the end of our survey.

I See Räjat. viii. 595 sqq.-Dürün is the direct phonetic derivative of Dhudāvana. Nār, the Kś. equivalent of Skr. näda, the Anglo-Indian ‘Nallah,' is often found as the second part in names of high hill-ranges in Kaśmir; compare, e.g., the 'Soornar' and ‘Baibnar' of the map, east of the Haramukh Peaks.



The following is a complete list of the MAHĀTMYA texts acquired by me in Kaśmir. The numbers in the fourth column refer to the manu. scripts representing these texts in my collection. Where the same text is found in several Manuscripts, the number of the best copy has been shown first. In the column of Remarks the Tirtba to wbich the Māhātmya refers has also been indicated, as well as the paragraph of the present Memoir in which it has been discussed.

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Tirtha in Varā.


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