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numerous passages of the Rajatarangiņi and the later Chronicles. The lands of the district seem to have been from early times in the hands of great territorial nobles. One family of Dāmaras resident in Lahara was powerful enough for its members to play the part of true kingmakers. during a succession of reigns following after Harsa. It is probable that the great trade-route to Ladakh and Central Asia which passes through the district, added already in old times to its wealth and importance.

In the midst of the wide water-logged tract of the Sind Delta we find the ancient Tirtha of TULAMULYA at the village now known as Tulemul, situated 74° 48′ long. 34° 13′ lat. The Purohita corporation of Tulamulya is represented as a well-to-do and influential body already under King Jayāpīḍa.3 The large spring of Tūlamulya is sacred to Mahārājñi, a form of Durgā, and is still held in great veneration by the Brahman population of Srinagar. It is supposed to exhibit from time to time miraculous changes in the colour of its water, which are ascribed to the manifestation of the goddess. Owing to its convenient position the Tirtha attracts large numbers of pilgrims from the capital. Abu-l-Fazl notices the place and its marshy surroundings. About two

and a half miles to the east of Tulamul lies the village of Dudarhōm, on the main branch of the Sind which becomes here navigable. It is repeatedly spoken of by Srivara under its old name of DUGDHASRAMA.5

Ascending the valley we come to the large village of Mañigām, situated a short distance from the right bank of the river, 74° 52′ long. 34° 17′ lat. It is the MAYAGRAMA of Kalhaņa's Chronicle, mentioned in connection with a campaign of Bhikṣācara in Lahara. In the time of King Saṁgrāmarāja (A.D. 1003-28) Mayagrāma gave its name to a separate fund (Mayagrāmiņagañja) which Queen Srilekha had established evidently with the revenue assigned from this village. Mañ1gām-Mayagrāma still owns a large area of excellent rice-fields. The village itself contains no ancient remains; but a short distance above it, at the foot of the spur which descends from a high alp known as

1 Compare for the identification of Lar and Lahara, note Rājat. v. 51. The authors of the St. Petersburg Dictionary were already aware of it; see P. W. 8. V. LAHARA.

2 Compare regarding the political part played by Janakacandra, Gargacandra and their descendants, Rājat. viii. 15 sqq., 354 sqq., 502 sqq., etc. For an earlier instance of Damara power in Lahara, see v. 51 sqq.

8 See Rajat. iv. 638 note.

4 Ain-i-Akb., ii. p. 364.

b Sriv. iv. 110, 136, 263.

6 See Rajat. viii. 729.
1 Compare Rajat. vii. 126.

Mohand Marg, there is an ancient stone-lined tank filled by a fine spring known as Vutasan Nag. This is visited as a Tirtha by the Brahmans of the neighbourhood and is also mentioned under the name of Uccaiḥsirna Naga in the Haramukuța and several other Mahatmyas. About a mile above the village the high-road leading up the valley passes a shapeless mound of large slabs which undoubtedly belonged to an ancient temple.

130. About four miles above Mañigām on the left bank of the Tirtha of Ciramocana. Sind we reach a site which has enjoyed sanctity from an early period. Close to the village of Prang (not shown on map) situated circ. 74° 55′ 30′′ long. 34° 16′ 45′′ lat., a small branch of the Kankanai River (Kanakavāhinī) flows into the Sind. This confluence is now visited by the pilgrims proceeding to the Haramukuta lakes as one of the chief Tirthas on the route. In the modern Haramukuta Mahatmya it is designated as Karankatirtha. But I have shown that it is in reality identical with the ancient Tirtha of CIRAMOCANA mentioned in the Rājatarangiņi, the Nīlamata and the old Nandikşetramāhātmya.1

The Kankanai or Kanakavāhini which is always named together with Ciramocana, is a sacred river as it carries down the waters of the holy Ganga-lake below the Haramukuta Peaks. This explains the importance attached to this 'Samgama.' The Haramukuṭa Māhātmya which shows its comparatively recent origin by many of its local names, metamorphoses the old Kanavāhinī into Karankanadi and consequently also changes the name of its confluence into Karankatirtha. King Jalauka, the son of Aśoka, whom the Chronicle represents as a fervent worshipper of Siva Blüteśa and of Nandisa, is said to have ended his days at Ciramocana.

Tirthas of Bhūtesa,

Our survey has already taken us to the sacred sites of BHŪTESA and JYEŞṬHARUDRA marked by the ruined temples at the present Buthiser high up in the Kanka. nai Valley. They are closely connected with the Tirthas of NANDIKSETRA below the Haramukuta glaciers which have also been described. The village of Vängath, which is the highest permanently inhabited place in the valley, lies about two miles below Buthiser. It is named VASISTHASRAMA in the Māhātmyas and believed to mark the residence of the Rși Vasistha. Allusions in the Rajatarangiņi and Nilamata show that this legendary location is of old date.

1 See Rajat. i. 149-150 note.

2 See above, § 57.

3 Regarding the local nomenclature of this Māhātmya, see above, § 31. • See above, § 57; also Rajat. notes i. 36, 107, 113; v. 55-59.

b Compare Rajat. viii, 2430 note.

At the mouth of Kankanai Valley, and about two miles to the north-east of Ciramocana, is the hamlet of Bāravul which Kalhaṇa mentions as an Agrahāra of King Jalauka under the name of VĀRABĀLA.1 A large sculptured Linga base which I found here in 1891, shows the antiquity of the place.

131. Returning to the main valley we come, about three miles above Ciramocana, to the large village of Upper Sind Valley. Kangan situated on the right bank on the Sind. It is, perhaps, identical with KANKANAPURA which Queen Didda is said to have founded in commemoration of her husband Kṣemagupta, known by the epithet of Kankanavarṣa.'' No old localities can be identified with certainty in the Sind Valley until we reach the village of Gagangir, situated two marches above Kangan, circ, 75° 15′ long. 34° 18' lat. This is undoubtedly the GAGANAGIRI of Jonaraja, and the Fourth Chronicle.3 The place is mentioned in both texts in connection with invasions which were made into Kaśmir over the Zōji-La Pass. The first was that of the Bhautta Riñcana, the second the famous inroad of the Mughal leader Mirza Haidar (A.D. 1532). The account which the latter himself has left us of his exploit, fully explains the special reference made to Gaganagiri by the Hindu Chronicler.

About three miles above Gagangir two rocky spurs descend from

Defile of

opposite sides into the valley and reduce it to a narrow gorge (see map). The passage of this defile was until recent improvements of the road distinctly difficult, as large fallen rocks blocked the narrow space between the right bank of the river and the high cliffs rising above it. It is at this point of the valley which Mirza Ḥaidar calls 'the narrow defile of Lar,' that the Kasmir chiefs vainly attempted to stop the brave Turks of the invader's advanced guard.

Kalhana's Chronicles shows that the defile here indicated had witnessed fighting already at an earlier epoch. When King Sussala's forces had driven Gargacandra, the great feudal chief, from his seats in Lahara, we are told that the Damara with his followers retired to the mountain called DHUрAVANA. There he was long besieged by the troops

1 See Rajat. i. 121 note.

2 See Rajat. vi. 301.

8 Compare Jonar. (Bo. ed.), 197, and Fourth Chron. 316. The old name of the locality ought to have been entered in the map. The Bombay edition of the Fourth Chron. wrongly reads gamananiryanta for gaganagiryanta of the MSS.

♦ See Tarikh-i Rashidi, p. 423. Mr. ELIAS in his note on the passage has quite correctly identified the defile meant by his author. The Fourth Chronicle names the autumn of the Laukika year [460]8 as the date of the event which agrees exactly with Mirzā Ḥaidar's A.H. 939 Jamād II (December, 1532 a.d.).

"of the king who was encamped at the foot of the mountain." In my note on the passage I have shown that the name Dhuḍāvana survives in Dürün Nār (map 'Darnar'), the appellation of the high spur which descends into the Sind Valley from the south between Gagangir and Sun marg. It is exactly at the foot of this spur that the river passes through the gorge above described. The position taken up by the king's opponent is thus fully explained.

Gagangir being already 7400 feet above the sea, is the last permanently inhabited place in the valley. Some twenty-five miles higher up we arrive at the Zōji-La Pass. Here we have reached the limits of Kasmir as well as the end of our survey.

I See Rajat. viii. 595 sqq.—Dürün is the direct phonetic derivative of Dhuḍāvana. Nār, the Ks. equivalent of Skr. nāḍa, the Anglo-Indian 'Nullah,' is often found as the second part in names of high hill-ranges in Kasmir; compare, e.g., the 'Soornar' and 'Baibnar' of the map, east of the Haramukh Peaks.



The following is a complete list of the MAHATMYA texts acquired by me in Kaśmir. The numbers in the fourth column refer to the manuscripts representing these texts in my collection. Where the same text is found in several Manuscripts, the number of the best copy has been shown first. In the column of Remarks the Tirtha to which the Mahātmya refers has also been indicated, as well as the paragraph of the present Memoir in which it has been discussed.

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