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ADDITIONAL Note.- $ 14. Mr. W. MERK, C.8.I., C.s., at present Deputy Commissioner of the Hazāra District, to whom I submitted the above-printed remarks on Albērūni's route to Kaśmir (p. 23) and on the town of Babrahān mentioned by him, has kindly supplied me in a letter, dated 25th April, 1899, with the interesting information that “the basin formed by the three Nullahs which unite at Chamhad is called the ‘Babarhān 'tract." Chamhad is shown on the map as a village in the Mian Khaki Nullah, south-west of Abbottabad, circ. 34° 7' lat., 73° 7' long.

Mr. Merk believes that the position of Albērūni's “ town Babrahan, half-way between the rivers Sindh and Jailam” is marked by the present Babarhān 'which practically retains the same name. There is much to support this identification. The Nullah called Mian Khaki on the Survey map forms a convenient route from the central plain of Hazāra, about Mirpur, towards the Siran Valley through which the Indus could conveniently be gained at Torbela. The latter has remained a favourite crossing place to the present day, being situated just where the Indus debouches from the mountains.

The 8 Farsakh or about 39 miles which Albērūni counts from Babrahān to “ the bridge over the river," i.e., according to my explanation, the present Muzaffarābād, would well agree with the actual distance between the latter place and Babarhān, In calculating this distance it must be kept in view that the old road from the Indus to Kaśmir, according to Mr. Merk's information, descended to Garhi Habibullā, on the Kunhār River, through the Doga Nullah, i.e., by a more direct route than that followed by the modern cart-road via Mansahra.

I am further indebted to Mr. Merk for the very interesting notice that the plain near Mirpur, about 5 miles north-northwest of Abbottabad, is popularly known by the name of Urash or Orash. There can be no doubt as to this local name being the modern representative of the ancient Uraśā. Its survival in that particular locality strikingly confirms the conclusion indicated above in 83, and also in my note on Rājat. v. 217, as to the position of the old capital of Uraśā. The designation of this capital was undoubtedly Uraśā.

cal name al in than $ 83, avital of

1899.]

223

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.-INTRODUCTORY.

Page.

Para.

1. Ancient topography in Kalhaņa’s Chronicle ...
2. Preparation of maps ...
3. Arrangement of Memoir.
4. Earlier Publications (Wilson, Troyer, Cunningham,

Lassen, Bühler)

CHAPTER II.-ACCOUNTS OF OLD KASMIR.

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SECTION 1.CLASSICAL NOTICES. 5. Alexander's invasion.-Ptolemy's Kaspeiria ... ... 6. The Kaspeiroi of Dionysios and Nonnos 7. Kaspatyros of Herodotos.-Supposed Derivation of 'Kaś.

mira' from * Kaśyapapura

SECTION 11.-CHINESE RECORDS. 8. Earliest Chinese notice 9. Visit of Hiuen Tsiang (A. D. 631)

Kaśmir in T'ang Annals 11. Ou-k'ong (A. D. 759) ...

10.

SECTION III.-MUHAMMADAN NOTICES.
12. Kaśmir closed to Arab geographers
13. Albērūni's interest in Kasmir
14. Albārūni's account of Kaśmir.-Route into Kaśmir.-De-

scription of the Valley.- Description of Pir Pantsāl.-
The fortress Laubūr...

SECTION IV.-INDIAN NOTICES. 15. Deficiency of information in Non-Kaśmirian texts

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SECTION VII.—LOCAL TRADITION.
33. Local tradition of the learned ..
34. P. Sāhibrām's Tirthasamgraba.- Its local names
35. Popular local tradition

CHAPTER III.-GENERAL GEOGRAPHY.
SECTION 1.—POSITION AND CONFIGURATION OF KAŚMĪR VALLEY.
36. The name Kaśmira.-Etymologies of name ...
37. Extent and position of Kaśmir
38. Legend of Satisaras.—Lacustrine features of Valley
39. Kaśmir defended by its mountains
40. Watch-stations on mountain routes.—Guarding of Gates

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