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النشر الإلكتروني

Serial No.

Modern name.

Shown in Pargaņa list

of

Sanskrit name.

12 Bring

AF. Mo. Hü. *BHÃNGA (Lokapr.) Fi. Ba.

13 Shāhābād (Vēr) ... AF. Mo. Hü.

Vi. Ba.

14 Dipesar

...

AF. Mo. Hü. DEVASARASA vi. Ba.

15 Adqvin

AF. Mo. Hü. KARALA (Rāj.)

Vi. Ba. ARDHAVANA (Jonar.) AF. Mo. Hü. JAINAPURA (Jonar.)... Vi. Ba.

16 Zain&põr

17 | Bot

AF. Mo. Hü.

Vi. Ba.

18 Suparsāmün

AF. Mo. Hü. Vi. Ba.

19 S'ukru

...

AF. Mo. Hü. Vi. Ba.

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REMARKS AND REFER

ENCES

§ 113.

114. Mo, calls the Pargana

“Banna. bal."

$ 115.

$ 116.

do.

$ 116. Hü. Vi. call the district after "Supiyan Shahr," its headquarters.

$ 117.

do.

§ 118.

do.

do.

$ 119.

do.

$ 120.

do.

27 | Maichohõm

do.

28 Paraspor

AF. Mo. Hü. PARIHASAPURA (Rāj.) § 121.
Ba.

Serial No.

Modern name.

Shown in Pargaņa list

of

Sanskrit name.

29 Säiru-l-mawāzi'

Pāyin.

AF. Mo. Hü. Vi. Ba.

30 And&rköth

AF. Mo.

...

...

[ABHYANTARAKOTTA] (Raj.)

31 Bāngil

AF. Mo. Hü. BHANGILA (Rāj.) Vi. Ba.

32 | Patan

AF.

PATTANA (Rāj.)

33 Til®gām

AF. Mo. Vi. TAILAGRĀMA (Fourth Ba.

Chron.)

34 Khoy

AF. Mo. Hü. Ba.

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REMARKS AND REFER

ENCES.

$ 122.

do.

§ 123.

do.

do.

A small tract (Quihi' on map) to the north of Patan and Tila. gām.

§ 124.

§ 125.

do.

| $ 126.

§ 128.

40 Zainggir

do.

41 Khuyąhom

do.

42 Lär

| $ 129.

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ADDITIONAL NOTE.- 14. Mr. W. MERK, C.s.i., C.S., present Deputy Commissioner of the Hazāra District, to whom I submitted the above-printed remarks on Albêrūni's route to Kaśmir (p. 23) and on the town of Babrahān mentioned by him, has kindly supplied me in a letter, dated 25th April, 1899, with the interesting information that “the basin formed by the three Nullahs which unite at Chamhad is called the Babarhān 'tract.” Chamhad is shown on the map as a village in the Mian Khaki Nullah, south-west of Abbottabad, circ. 34° 7' lat., 73° 7' long.

Mr. Merk believes that the position of Albērūni's “ town Babrahān, half-way between the rivers Sindh and Jailam” is marked by the present ‘Babarhān 'which practically retains the same name. There is much to support this identification. The Nullah called Mian Khaki on the Survey map forms a convenient route from the central plain of Hazāra, about Mirpur, towards the Siran Valley through which the Indus could conveniently be gained at Torbela. The latter has remained a favourite crossing place to the present day, being situated just where the Indus debouches from the mountains.

The 8 Farsakh or about 39 miles which Albērūni counts from Babrahān to "the bridge over the river," i.e., according to my explanation, the present Muzaffarābād, would well agree with the actual distance between the latter place and Babarhān,

In calculating this distance it must be kept in view that the old road from the Indus to Kaśmir, according to Mr. Merk's information, descended to Garhi Habibullā, on the Kunhār River, through the Doga Nullah, 1, e., by a more direct route than that followed by the modern cart-road via Mansahra.

I am further indebted to Mr. Merk for the very interesting notice that the plain near Mirpur, about 5 miles north-northwest of Abbottabad, is popularly known by the name of Urash or Orash.

There can be no doubt as to this local name being the modern representative of the ancient Uraśā. Its survival in that particular locality strikingly confirms the conclusion indicated above in $ 83, and also in my note on Rājat. v. 217, as to the position of the old capital of Uraśā. The designation of this capital was undoubtedly Urasa.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.-INTRODUCTORY.

Para.

1. Ancient topography in Kalhaņa's Chronicle
2. Preparation of maps ...
3. Arrangement of Memoir
4. Earlier Publications (Wilson, Troyer, Cunningham,

Lassen, Bühler)

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1 2 3

4

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CHAPTER II.-ACCOUNTS OF OLD KASMIR.

SECTION 1.CLASSICAL NOTICES,

8 10

5. Alexander's invasion.-Ptolemy's Kaspeiria
6. The Kaspeiroi of Dionysios and Nonnos
7. Kaspatyros of Herodotos.-Supposed Derivation of Kas-

mira' from * Kaśyapapura

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20 21

12. Kaśmir closed to Arab geographers
13. Albērūni's interest in Kasmir
14. Albārūni's account of Kaśmir.-Route into Kaśmir.-De-

scription of the Valley.- Description of Pir Pantsäl.-
The fortress Lauhûr ...

23

...

SECTION IV.-INDIAN NOTICES.

15. Deficiency of information in Non-Kaśmirian texts

...

28 Page.

29
30
31

33

35

SECTION V.-THE KASMĪR CHRONICLES.
Para.
16. Abundance of Kaśmirian sources
17. Kalhaņa's Rājatarangiņi
18. Kalhaņa's notices of Tirthas
19. Kalbaņa's references to foundations
20. Topographical data in Kalhaņa's historical narrative
21. Accuracy of Kalhaņa's topography
22. Sanskrit form of local names in Rājatarargiņi.-Official

names of localities
23. Later Sanskrit Chronicles. — Jonarāja; Srivara; The

Fourth Chronicle
24. Persian Tārīkhs of Kaśmir
25. Kaśmir poets.-Kşemendra.—Bilhaņa.-Markha
26. The Lokaprakāśa

37

39

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SECTION VI.-THE NĪLAMATA AND MĀRĀTMYAS.
27. The Nilamatapurāņa.—Condition of text
28. The Haracaritacintāmaņi
29. The Māhātmyas.-Their date
30. Origin and purpose of Māhātmyas.—The local Parohitas...
31. Popular etymology in local names of Māhātmyas
32. Abū-l-Fazl's account of Tirthas

: : : : : :

46
48
49
51
53
55

SECTION VII. - LOCAL TRADITION,

33. Local tradition of the learned
34. P. Sāhibrām's Tirthasamgraba.-Its local names
35. Popular local tradition

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CHAPTER III.- GENERAL GEOGRAPHY.

SECTION 1.–POSITION AND CONFIGURATION OF KAŚMĪR VALLEY.

36. The name Kaśmira.-Etymologies of name
37. Extent and position of Kaśmir
38. Legend of Satisaras.—Lacustrine features of Valley
39. Kaśmir defended by its mountains
40. Watch-stations on mountain routes.-Guarding of Gates

61
63
65
67
68

SECTION 11.—THE PĪR PANTSĀL RANGE.
41. Kaśmir orography.--Eastern portion of Pir Pantsāl

Range (Pass of Bāņaśālā; Naubandhana Tirtha; Sid-
dhapatha)

70

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