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النشر الإلكتروني

Serial No.

Modern name.

Shown in Pargaņa list

of

Sanskrit name.

REMARKS AND REFER

ENCES.

12 Bring

AF. Mo. Hü. *BHÃNGA (Lokapr.) Vi. Ba.

13 Shāhābād (Vēr)... | AF. Mo. Hü.

Vi. Ba.

14 | Dipasar

AF. Mo. Hü. DEVASARASA Vi. Ba.

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AF. Mo. Hü. KARALA (Rāj.)
Vi. Ba, ARDHAVANA (Jonar.)

16 Zain&põr

AF. Mo. Hü. JAINAPURA (Jonar.)... Vi. Ba.

17 Bot

AF. Mo. Hü.

Vi. Ba.

18 Sūparsā mün

...

AF. Mo. Hü. Vi. Ba.

19 Sukru

AF. Mo. Hü. Vị, Ba.

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$ 113.

§ 114. Mo. calls the

Pargana
hal."

“Banna

$ 115.

$ 116.

do.

$ 116. Hü. Vi. call

the district after “Supiyan Shahr," its headquarters.

§ 117.

do.

§ 118.

do.

do.

$ 119.

do.

$ 120.

do.

do.

28 Paraspor

AF. Mo. Hü. PARIHASAPURA (Rāj.) $ 121.
Ba.

Serial No.

Modern name.

Shown in Pargaņa list

of

Sanskrit name.

29 Säiru-l-mawāzi'

Pāyin.

AF. Mo. Hü. Vi. Ba.

30 Anderkoth

AF. Mo.

[ABHYANTARAKOTTA] (Rāj.)

31 Bāngil

AF. Mo. Hü. BHANGILA (Rāj.) Vi. Ba.

32 Patan

AF.

PATTANA (Rāj.)

...

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33 Til@gām

...

AF. Mo. Vi. TAILAGRĀMA (Fourth Ba.

Chron.)

AF. Mo. Hü.

. Ba.

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REMARKS AND REFER

ENCES.

$ 122.

do.

§ 123.

do.

do.

84 | Khuy

A small tract (Quihi' on map) to the north of Patan and Tila. gām.

35 Krahin

$ 124.

36 | Hamal

§ 125.

37 | Mạchipur

do.

38 Uttara

§ 126.

39 Lölau

§ 128.

40 Zain#gir

do.

41 | Khuy hôm

do.

42 Lär

$ 129.

ADDITIONAL NOTE.- $ 14. Mr. W. Merk, C.8.I., C.s., at present Deputy Commissioner of the Hazāra District, to whom I submitted the above-printed remarks on Albērūni's route to Kaśmir (p. 23) and on the town of Babrahān mentioned by him, has kindly supplied me in a letter, dated 25th April, 1899, with the interesting information that “the basin formed by the three Nullahs which unite at Chamhad is called the Babarhān 'tract." Chamhad is shown on the map as a village in the Mian Khaki Nullah, south-west of Abbottabad, circ. 34° 7' lat., 73° 7' long.

Mr. Merk believes that the position of Albērūni's“ town Babrahān, half-way between the rivers Sindh and Jailam” is marked by the present 'Babarhān’ which practically retains the same name. There is much to support this identification. The Nullah called Mian Khaki on the Survey map forms a convenient route from the central plain of Hazāra, about Mirpur, towards the Siran Valley through which the Indus could conveniently be gained at Torbela. The latter has remained a favourite crossing place to the present day, being situated just where the Indus debouches from the mountains.

The 8 Farsakh or about 39 miles which Albērūni counts from Babrahān to “ the bridge over the river," i.e., according to my explanation, the present Muzaffarābād, would well agree with the actual distance between the latter place and Babarhān,

In calculating this distance it must be kept in view that the old road from the Indus to Kaśmir, according to Mr. Merk’s information, descended to Garhi Habibullā, on the Kunhār River, through the Doga Nullah, i.e., by a more direct route than that followed by the modern cart-road via Mansahra.

I am further indebted to Mr. Merk for the very interesting notice that the plain near Mirpur, about 5 miles north-northwest of Abbottabad, is popularly known by the name of Urash or Orash. There can be no doubt as to this local name being the modern representative of the ancient Uraśā. Its survival in that particular locality strikingly confirms the conclusion indicated above in § 83, and also in my note on Rājat. v. 217, as to the position of the old capital of Uraśā. The designation of this capital was undoubtedly Urasa.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.-INTRODUCTORY.

...

Para.

1. Ancient topography in Kalhaņa's Chronicle
2. Preparation of maps
3. Arrangement of Memoir
4. Earlier Publications (Wilson,

(Wilson, Troyer, Cunningham,
Lassen, Bühler)

Page.

1 2 3

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4

CHAPTER II.-ACCOUNTS OF OLD KASMĪR.

SECTION 1.CLASSICAL NOTICES,

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8 10

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5. Alexander's invasion.-Ptolemy's Kaspeiria
6. The Kaspeiroi of Dionysios and Nonnos
7. Kaspatyros of Herodotos.-Supposed Derivation of 'Kaś.

mira' from *Kaśyapapura

...

11

...

SECTION II.-CHINESE RECORDS.

8. Earliest Chinese notice 9. Visit of Hinen Tsiang (A.D. 631) 10. Kaśmir in T'ang Annals 11. Ou-k'ong (A. D. 759)

13 14 17 18

SECTION III.-MOHAMMADAN NOTICES.

...

20 21

12. Kaśmir closed to Arab geographers
13. Albērūni's interest in Kasmir
14. Albērūni's account of Kaśmir.-Route into Kasmir.-De-

scription of the Valley.- Description of Pir Pantsäl.-
The fortress Lauhūr...

23

SECTION IV.-INDIAN NOTICES.

15. Deficiency of information in Non-Kaśmírian texts

28

SECTION V.-THE KAŠMĪR CHRONICLES.
Para.
16. Abundance of Kaśmīrian sources
17. Kalhaņa's Rājatarangiņi
18. Kalhaņa's notices of Tirthas
19. Kalbaņa's references to foundations
20. Topographical data in Kalhana's historical narrative
21. Accuracy of Kalhaņa's topography
22. Sanskrit form of local names in Rājatarangiņi.—Official

names of localities
23. Later Sanskrit Chronicles. — Jonarāja; Srivara; The

Fourth Chronicle
24. Persian Tārīkhs of Kasmir
25. Kasmir poets.-Kşemendra.-Bilhaņa.-Mańkha
26. The Lokaprakāśa

Page.

29
30
31
33
35
37

39

...

40
43
43
45

...

SECTION VI.-THE NILAMATA AND MĀRĀTMYAS.

27. The Nilamatapurāņa.-Condition of text
28. The Haracaritacintāmaņi
29. The Māhātmyas.-Their date
30. Origin and purpose of Māhātmyas.—The local Purohitas...
31. Popular etymology in local names of Māhātmyas
32. Abū-1-Fazl's account of Tirthas

46
48
49
51
53
55

SECTION VII. —LOCAL TRADITION.

33. Local tradition of the learned
34. P. Sāhibrām's Tirthasamgraha.--Its local names
35. Popular local tradition

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CHAPTER III.- GENERAL GEOGRAPHY.

SECTION 1.-POSITION AND CONFIGURATION OF KAŚMĪR VALLEY.
36. The name Kaśmira.-Etymologies of name
37. Extent and position of Kasmir
38. Legend of Satisaras.-Lacustrine features of Valley
39. Kaśmir defended by its mountains
40. Watch-stations on mountain routes.-Guarding of Gates

61
63
65
67
68

SECTION II.-THE PĪR PANTSĀL RANGE.
41. Kaśmir orography.--Eastern portion of Pir Pantsāl

Range (Pass of Bāņaśālā; Naubandhana Tirtha; Sid-
dhapatha)

70

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