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ADDITIONAL NOTE.-§ 14.
Mr. W. MERK, C.S.I., C.S., at present Deputy Commissioner of the Hazara District, to whom I submitted the above-printed remarks on Albērūni's route to Kasmir (p. 23) and on the town of Babrahān mentioned by him, has kindly supplied me in a letter, dated 25th April, 1899, with the interesting information that "the basin formed by the three Nullahs which unite at Chamhad is called the 'Babarhān' tract." Chamhad is shown on the map as a village in the Mian Khaki Nullah, south-west of Abbottabad, circ. 34° 7′ lat., 73° 7′ long.
Mr. Merk believes that the position of Albērūnī's "town Babrahān, half-way between the rivers Sindh and Jailam" is marked by the present Babarhan' which practically retains the same name. There is much to support this identification. The Nullah called Mian Khaki on the Survey map forms a convenient route from the central plain of Hazāra, about Mirpur, towards the Siran Valley through which the Indus could conveniently be gained at Torbela. The latter has remained a favourite crossing place to the present day, being situated just where the Indus debouches from the mountains.
The 8 Farsakh or about 39 miles which Albērūni counts from Babrahan to "the bridge over the river," i.e., according to my explanation, the present Muzaffarābād, would well agree with the actual distance between the latter place and Babarhān, In calculating this distance it must be kept in view that the old road from the Indus to Kaśmir, according to Mr. Merk's information, descended to Garhi Habibulla, on the Kunhār River, through the Doga Nullah, i.e., by a more direct route than that followed by the modern cart-road vid Mansahra.
I am further indebted to Mr. Merk for the very interesting notice that the plain near Mirpur, about 5 miles north-northwest of Abbottabad, is popularly known by the name of Urash or Orash. There can be no doubt as to this local name being the modern representative of the ancient Uraśā. Its survival in that particular locality strikingly confirms the conclusion indicated above in § 83, and also in my note on Rājat. v. 217, as to the position of the old capital of Uraśā. The designation of this capital was undoubtedly Uraśā.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
4. Earlier Publications (Wilson, Troyer, Cunningham, Lassen, Bühler)
CHAPTER II.-ACCOUNTS OF OLD KASMIR.
SECTION 1.-CLASSICAL NOTICES.
5. Alexander's invasion.-Ptolemy's Kaspeiria
mira' from Kasyapapura
SECTION II.-CHINESE RECORDS.
14. Albērūni's account of Kaśmir.-Route into Kaśmir.-Description of the Valley.-Description of Pir Pantsāl.
SECTION IV.-INDIAN NOTICES.
15. Deficiency of information in Non-Kaśmirian texts
18. Kalhana's notices of Tirthas
20. Topographical data in Kalhana's historical narrative
Sanskrit form of local names in Rājatarangiņi.—Official
23. Later Sanskrit Chronicles.- Jonarāja; Srivara; The
24. Persian Tarikhs of Kasmir
25. Kasmir poets.-Kṣemendra.-Bilhana.-Mankha
SECTION VI.-THE NILAMATA AND MAHATMYAS.
30. Origin and purpose of Māhātmyas.-The local Purohitas...
34. P. Sāhibrām's Tirthasaṁgraha.—Its local names
CHAPTER III.-GENERAL GEOGRAPHY.
SECTION I.-POSITION AND CONFIGURATION OF KASMIR VALLEY.
36. The name Kaśmira.-Etymologies of name
SECTION II. THE PIR PANTSAL RANGE.
41. Kasmir orography.--Eastern portion of Pir Pantsāl