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78

79
79

SECTION III.—THE VITASTĀ VALLEY.

SECTION IV.-NORTHERN AND EASTERN MOUNTAIN RANGES.

95

SECTION V. -UPPER COURSE OF THE VITASTĀ.

96
98

...

...

99

101
103
101

105

SECTION VI.-LOWER COURSE OF THE VITASTĀ.

J. 1. 29

107

108

109

Para.
71 Results of Suyya's regulation
72. Course of Vitastā towards Volur lake.- Mānasa lake
73 Volur lake.- Mabāpadma Nāga.-Name Ullola
74. Legends of Mahāpadma Nāga
75. Lower affluents of Vitastā.-Suyyapura

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SECTION VII.--SOIL AND CLIMATE OF THE VALLEY.

117
118

76. Alluvial Plateaus (Udar).-Soil of Uủars
77. Kaśmir Climate.--Rigours of Kaśmir winter ...
78. Cultivation of rice.- Irrigation.- Saffron-cultivation.-

Grapes

120

SECTION VIII. - ETHNOGRAPHY.

79. Old ethuography of Kaśmir.-Absorption of foreign ethnic

elements.—Tribal sections
80. Races on Kaśmir borders.-Khaśas.-Darads.-Bhauţtas...

123
124

CHAPTER IV.-POLITICAL TOPOGRAPHY,

126

SECTION 1.-FRONTIERS OF ANCIENT KAŚMĪR.
81. Territories S. E. of Kaśmir.-Cambā.- Vallāpara.-Vişa-

Jātā
82. Frontier territories to S. W. and W.-Rājapuri.-Lohara ;

Parņotsa.--Dväravati
83. Uraśā-Hazāra.-Kişangangā Valley ; Karņāha
84. Darad territory.--The Bhauțțas

128
130
131

SECTION II.--ANCIENT POLITICAL DIVISIONS.

85. Kramarājya, Madavarājya
86. Administrative Districts.--Lists of Kaśmir Parganas
87. Density of population in old Kaśmir.-Number of villages

133
134
136

...

SECTION III. -THE OLD AND NEW CAPITALS.

88. Srinagara in Eiuen Tsiang's time
89. Parāṇādhişthāna, 'the Old Capital'
90. Aśoka's Srinagari.—Transfer of name to new capital
91. Pravarasena's capital.-Name of Pravarapura
92. Legend of foundation of Pravarapura.-Mahāsarit ; Setu...
93. Old limits of Pravarapura.-Kalbaņa's description of it...
94. Advantages of site of Srinagara.- Natural defences of

Srinagara.—City on left river-bank

137
138
139
141
142
144

145

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SECTION V.—THE ENVIRONS OF SRINAGARA.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.

Ain-i Akb.

The Ain-i Akbari by Abū-l-Fayl 'Allāmi, translated from the original Persian, by Col. H. S. Jarrett. Vol. II. (Bibliotheca

Indica). Calcutta, 1891, BATES, Gazetteer. A Gazetteer of Kashmir and the adjacent districts of

Kishtwar, Badrawar, etc., compiled (for political and military reference), by Charles Ellison Bates, Captain, B.S.C., and

Brevet-Major. Calcutta. 1873.
BERNIER, Travels. Travels in the Mogal Empire A.D. 1656-1668, by François

Bernier, M.D. A revised and improved edition, etc., by
Archibald Constable. Westminster, Archibald Constable

and Co., 1891. BÜHLER, Report. Detailed Report of a tour in search of Sanskrit MSS. made

in Kaśmir, Rajputana and Central India. By G. Bühler. Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society,

1877. COLE, Anc. Buildings. Illustrations of Ancient Buildings in Kashmir. Prepared

under the authority of the Secretary of State for India. By Henry Hardy Cole, R.E., Superintendent, Archæological Survey

of India, N.-W. P. London, 1869. CUNNINGHAM, Anc. The Ancient Geography of India, 1. The Buddhist period, Geogr.

including the campaigns of Alexander and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang. By Alexander Cunningham, Major-General,

R.E. London, 1871. DREW, Jummoo.

The Jammoo and Kashmir Territories. A Geographical

Account. By Frederic Drew, F.R.G.s. London, 1875. FORSTER, Journey. A Journey from Bengal to England, through the Northern

part of India, Kashmire, etc. By George Forster. Vols. I,

II. London, 1808. Fourth Chron.

Rājāvalipatāka of Prājyabhatta and Suka. ( Fourth Sanskrit Chronicle of Kaśmir. Quoted according to the

editio princeps, Calcutta, 1835; compare below, p. 41). Harucar.

The Haracaritacintāmaņi of Rājāuaka Jayadratha. Kävyamālā, Bombay, 1897 (compare below, p. 48].

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