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teration will be adopted for the future in all publications of the Society, Authors of papers for the Journal, Pt. I, are particularly requested to adhere to it in their contributions.

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बा

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A. FOR THE DĒVANĀGARI ALPHABET, AND FOR ALL

ALPHABETS RELATED TO IT.
a, grå, Ti, ti,
u, Sū, ?, ??,

!, ge, Eē, Ō, ai, tau, ฑ์,

:ļ
k, kh,

gh, 7
C,
ch,

* jh,
TI, 7th,

adh,
at, th, दd. W dh, an

ph, Tb, # bh, मm
T?,

ole ūv, (ਡ !)

ş, 88, h. In the above the rirama bas been omitted for the sake of clearness.

In Modern Vernaculars only; y may be represented by ?, and by th.

Avagraha is to be represented by an apostrophe, thus i sfa 80 'pi. Visarga is represented by , Jihrāmūlīya by h, and Upadhmāniya by k. Anusvāra is represented by m, thus feil samsarga, and anunāsika by the sign over the letter nasalized, thus vã, grã, and so on. The unlitta accent is represented by the sign' and the svarita by. Thus, gfu: agníḥ, afgar janitá, krá, at kanya. The anudātta accent

may

be represented by: Thus, a gaña té àvardhanta. B. FOR PERSIAN (INCLUDING ARABIC WORDS IN

PERSIAN) AND HINDUSTĀNI. (The system is not applicable to Arabic when pronounced as in Arabicspeaking countries): Vowels. Consonants. Sounds only found in

Hindūstāni.

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số kh

when representing anunsika in Dēra

Nägarī, by on the preceding vowel w (or rarely v)

h

is y

Hamzah (where necessary)' The J of the article o in Arabic words should be assimilated before the solar letters; and the vowel u which often precedes the article and absorbs its vowel should remain attached to the word to which it belongs. Thus—aya JW Iqbālu-d-daulah.

Tanwin may be rendered by n-e.g., ittijāqan. Alif-i maqsūrah should be rendered by a.

Final 8 need not be written in Persian and Hindustani words, but should be written in Arabic words.

ON MAPS ILLUSTRATING

THE ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY

OF

KAŚMĪR.

BY

M. A. STEIN, Ph.D.

PRINCIPAL, MADRASAH COLLEGE, CALCUTTA.

JOURNAL OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, VOL. LXVIII,

PART 1., EXTRA-NUMBER 2.-1899.

CALCUTTA:

PRINTED AT THE BAPTIST MISSION PRESS

AND PUBLISHED BY THE
ASIATIC SOCIETY, 57, PARK STREET.

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