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teration will be adopted for the future in all publications of the Society. Authors of papers for the Journal, Pt. I, are particularly requested to adhere to it in their contributions.

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A. FOR THE DEVANĀGARI ALPHABET, AND FOR ALL

ALPHABETS RELATED TO IT. a, grå, Ti, ti, UU, ū,

Ę !, ye, Eē, o, बी, ऐ ai, चौ

au, e,

:

k,
kh ग,

agh,
C,

नj, jh,
TI, 8th, d, dh, पा
at, oth, d. w dh,

ph, Tb, # bh, मm

ul, જ છે, ( ) T$,

h. In the above the rirama bas been omitted for the sake of clearness.

In Modern Vernaculars only; y may be represented by ?, and by th.

Avagraha is to be represented by an apostrophe, thus et sfa so 'pi. Visarga is represented by ?, Jihrāmūliya by h, and Upadhmāniya by k. Anusvāra is represented by m, thus sunt samsarga, and anunāsika by the sign over the letter nasalized, thus Dā, grã, and so on. The urlatta accent is represented by the sign' and the svarita by". Thus, gfu: agník, asgar janitá, kva, qa kanya. The anudātta accent may be represented by: Thus, a gaña àvardhanta. B. FOR PERSIAN (INCLUDING ARABIC WORDS IN

PERSIAN) AND HINDŪSTĀNI. (The system is not applicable to Arabic when pronounced as in Arabicspeaking countries) : Vowels. Consonants.

Sounds only found in

Hindūstäni.

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y ی

Hamzah | (where necessary)' The J of the article Ji in Arabic words should be assimilated before the solar letters; and the vowel u which often precedes the article and absorbs its vowel should remain attached to the word to which it belongs. Thus—dyal Jeu Iqbālu-d-daulah.

Tanwin may be rendered by n-e.g., ittijāgan. Alif-i maqsūrah should be rendered by a.

Final need not be written in Persian and Hindustani words, but should be written in Arabic words.

ON MAPS ILLUSTRATING

THE ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY

OF

KAŚMĪR.

BY

M. A. STEIN, Ph.D.

PRINCIPAL, MADRASAH COLLEGE, CALCUTTA.

JOURNAL OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, VOL. LXVIII,

PART I., EXTRA-NUMBER 2.–1899.

CALCUTTA:

PRINTED AT THE BAPTIST MISSION PRESS

AND PUBLISHED BY THE
ASIATIC SOCIETY, 57, PARK STREET.

1899.

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