Clients and Constituents: Political Responsiveness in Patronage Democracies
Oxford University Press, 01/05/2019 - 352 من الصفحات
Scholars of distributive politics often emphasize partisanship and clientelism. However, as Jennifer Bussell demonstrates in Clients and Constituents, legislators in "patronage democracies" also provide substantial constituency service: non-contingent, direct assistance to individual citizens. Bussell shows how the uneven character of access to services at the local level-often due to biased allocation on the part of local intermediaries-generates demand for help from higher-level officials. The nature of these appeals in turn provides incentives for politicians to help their constituents obtain public benefits. Drawing on a new cross-national dataset and extensive evidence from India-including sustained qualitative shadowing of politicians, novel elite and citizen surveys, and an experimental audit study with a near census of Indian state and national legislators-this book provides a theoretical and empirical examination of political responsiveness in developing countries. It highlights the potential for an under-appreciated form of democratic accountability, one that is however rooted in the character of patronage-based politics.
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actors Afrobarometer allocation analyses appeals to high-level areas asked average benefits Bihar blocking brokers bureaucrats caste Chapter characteristics Chhibber Citizen Survey clientelism co-partisans co-partisanship constituency development funds constituency service contacting contexts contingent dependent variable discussion distributive politics Dunning and Nilekani dynamics elected officials electoral behavior electoral treatments evaluate evidence expect group-based group-oriented high-level politicians highlighted important incentives India individual citizens individual-level influence interactions intermediaries Jharkhand Karnataka Kruks-Wisner level politicians messages MLALADS non-co-partisans nonprogrammatic offer Online Appendix Table overall particular partisan bias partisanship Party ID patronage democracies personal vote petitioners petitions political party Politician Survey politicians respond polling stations potential programs provide assistance Rajasthan relationship relevant reported representation representatives requests for assistance response rates role Samajwadi Party sample schemes Shadowing subject social desirability bias specific spending Sridevi strategies substantial suggests targeting tisan types Uttar Pradesh variables variation vote margin