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NOTES.

vi 1. 1238. a warchand wound, wide, gaping, hence, deadly the phrase occurs in Wallace, Bk 8, 11. 732, 858.

1. 1241. And flange, &c., and struck, &c. : this line is repeated at 1. 5253; and flange is still used to express rapid or sudden striking.

1. 1244. With a bir, with a thrust or blow. bir is properly force, impetus, but is still used to express a blow given with great force, rapid motion or whatever causes rapid motion, or, the sound made by anything in rapid motion. See Gloss, and note, 1. 1902.

1. 1245. foole, a horse : fole occurs in 11. 6400, 6451, and foale, in l. 8341, with the same meaning: nagge also occurs in 1. 7727,—" he neyt as a nagge.” Both words are still used in the same way; Burns, in * Tam o' Shanter,' says,

every naig was ca'd a shoe on,

The smith an' thee gat roaring fou on.” 1. 1248. The bourder of his basnet brestes in sonder : so in Mort. Arth., 1. 4211,

“The bordoure of his bacenett he bristes in sondire,” The bourder of the basnet (from this, and other mention of it further on) was either the peak of the ventaile, or the rim or collar that joined the basnet and cuirass : it is mentioned again and again in Gol. and Gaw. See Arms and Armour, by Boutell, London, 1869.

1 1254. hurlet hym, dragged him : hurl occurs in 11. 1969, 6660, 10311; and harle in 2968, 5834: both forms are still in use, and examples of harle are given by Jamieson from Douglas and Lyndsay.

1. 1257. nolpit to ground, knocked or dashed to the ground : nolpe, both as a s. and a vb., is still used, as in “he ga'e hiin a nap wi' his neive," "he nappit him wi' his neive,"—the expression given in 1. 13889, “He nolpit on with his neue.”

1. 1258. roile, charger : the roile was the great, large-boned horse of Flemish breed on which the full-armed knight rode at tournament or in battle.

1. 1265. caupyng, exchanging of blows, conflict, (0.F. couper, to strike). See note, 1. 1237.

1. 1270. haspes, clasps : hasp is still used both as a s. and as a vb. See Gloss., and note, 1. 367.

1. 1271. With a swinge of his sworde swappit hym in þe fase, with a swing of his sword struck him on the face : swing and swap are favourite words of our author, and are varied in every possible way both here and in the Morte Arthure. Having to express the action so often every variation or shade of variety had to be resorted to, and after so good a training as the Troy Book gave him he was well fitted to dash off those splendid battle scenes in the Morte Arthure. As a specimen of the variations of expression in this case take, with the line above, Swordis out swiftly þai swappit belyue.

1. 10541 Swange out swordys, swappit togedur.

10430 Swappit hom with swordes till the swalt all.

4687 With swappis of hor swordes swelt mony knightes.

10905

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Pirrus swappit out his sword, swange at the kyng.

13590 With swyng of our swordes swap hom in sonder.

11002 and compare with Morte Arthure, 1. 1464-6,

Swyftly with swerdes they swappene there-aftyre,
Swappez doune fulle sweperlye sweltande knightez,
That all swelltez one swarthe that they ouer swyngene.
Swappede owte with a swerde that swykede hym neuer. 1. 1795

with a swerde egge
The swyers swyre bane he swappes in sondre.

1. 2958-9 These are but a few of the examples of our author's variety of expression : he gives at least sixteen distinct variations of swinging or swapping the sword ; and if any one wishes to extend the comparison given above, he may turn to ll. 1889, 6699, 7274, 7340, 7769, 9561, 9668, 10390, 13024, 13419, of this work, and to the examples in the Morte Arthure.

1. 1278. ffrochit, another form of frusshit, dashed, rushed.

1. 1282. hym o liue broght, killed him on the spot: occurs again in 1. 1443; and in Mort. Arth., 1. 802, we havebroghte hym o lyfe:" it varies in both works to broghte oute o lyue.

1. 1289. on a soppe hole, in one body, in one mass : soppe occurs in Mort. Arth., The Bruce, and Douglas's Virgil, in the same sense; and it is still used in the West of Scotland, as in the phrase, “a good sup rain," or,

a good sup water in the well." 1. 1290. a horne : see note, 1. 1308. 1. 1292. for chaunse vppon vrthe, for the sake of all they hold dear.

1. 1296. Slogh hom downe sleghly & slaunge hom to grounde, Killed them right and left, and dashed them to the ground : sleghly is cunningly, hence, cleverly : slaunge, flung with force, or dashed, thrust, or knocked. Both words are still used as here. This line presents another of our author's favourite expressions : there are two forms of it common to his works, which are varied in every possible way, as in the case of l. 1271 ; one is given here, and one at l. 9038,

Slogh hom doun sleghly with sleght of his hond, while in Morte Arthure we have, ffor he slewe with a slynge be sleyghte of his handis.

1. 3418 And the tother slely slynges hym undire.

3855 That they bee sleyghely slayne, and slongene in watyrs.

4321 From these we find that all the variations are got from three forms with the rime-letter s, viz. slay, sleght, and slyng; and by introducing slade (a narrow valley, a den), we get in Troy Book, Miche slaght in þat slade of bo slegh knightes.

1. 6955 Myche slaghte in the slade & slyngyng of horse. Gret slaght in þe slade & slyngyng to ground.

7693 and in Morte Arthure, 11. 2977-8,

There is slayne in that slope, be elagere of his hondes,

Sexty slongene in a slade of sleghe men of armes. 1. 1297. warpide hom under, tossed them down: warp is still used

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in this sense, as in speaking of a wrestling match, " they warpit aither doun :" it also means to speak angrily, tauntingly, or vehemently, as in 11. 360, 2683, and as Douglas in his Virgil, p. 62, 1. 3, and p. 143, 1. 53,—in this sense it is generally followed by a preposition: it also means to raise, to wind (but still implying to cast or throw), as ¡n l. 11924, “he warpit up a wicket; " and so Douglas's Virgil, p. 432, 1. 4,

warp up the ports :” and in 11. 10462, 13412, to throw or toss from one, thus, “ warpit to the yates,' warpet ouer-burde mikill riches & relikes,” and as Barbour in The Bruce, Bk 3, 1. 108, and Bk 8, 1. 606.

1. 1307. And siket full sore with sylyny of teris ; so in Mort. Arth., 1. 3794,

“And thane syghande he saide with sylande terys." Again in 1. 2680 of this work we have,

“All in siking & sorrow, with syling of teris

Ho brast out with a birre." 1. 1308. Henttes his horne, seizes his horn. hastily blawes, quickly sounds it: so in Wallace, Bk 6, 1. 823,

“Leit doun the brig, and blew his horne on hycht.” 1. 1313. Kest vp his egh, raised his eyes = looked : the phrase is still used : note, the noun egh is sing.

1. 1314-5. Segh a batell come prickand, saw a company coming dashing on: so in Barbour, Bk 9, 1. 142,

“That on stedis of mekill prid

Come prikand,” &c.
Again in 1. 1317, we have “come girdand,as in "The Gentle Shepherd,'
Act I, Scene 1,

“I saw my Meg come linkin' oer the lee.” The idiom is still in use.

1. 1316. blusshed, looked intently: occurs again in 11. 2428, 9446, and in Mort. Arth., 1. 116.

1. 1319. to be stad so, to be so situated, to be so fixed : stade is so used in Mort. Arth., 1. 1926 ; and is still so used.

1. 1328. on bothe halfes, on both sides, i. e. before and behind: so in Mort. Arth., 1. 1980, on iche halfe ;and “ sere halfes” is a phrase often used in both works. blody beronyn, streaming with blood : occurs again and again here, and in the Mort. Arth., 11. 3946, 3971. 1. 1331. Pricket furthe into prise : so in The Bruce, Bk 2, 1. 236,

“ Thai prikyt then out off the press.” prise, conflict, melée, as in l. 1201, 2014

1. 1334. fled of his gate, fled out of his way: this idiom is still

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1. 1342. sobbyng of teres, should be sobbyng & teres.

1. 1347. dite & be dyn, shouting and noise : dite, a saying, a story, whether long or short, spoken or written.

1. 1348. with tеne turnyt pe bal, in despair gave way, or, with bitterness of heart gave way: to turn the back is still used to express

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shying or running from an enemy or a contest : in 1. 9474 the action is expressed by to gyffe bake," a phrase which is used by Barbour in The Bruce, Bk 6, 1. 790, and Bk 12, 1. 315; while in Bk 8, 1. 737; 10. 756; 11. 822 ; 11. 860, it is expressed by to take the back.

1. 1353. When the Grekys hade the gre & the grounde wonen, when the Greeks had won the victory and the position : “to win the gre” is a common Scottish phrase still used to express “to be victor," " to win the prize," "to come off first,” “to excel all competitors : to bear the greis to hold the first place, to bear off the highest honours : thus, at a rifle match the one who has the highest score is said “ to have won the gre ; ” and after the match he “bears the gre," and will do so till some one else excels him.

1. 1360. of þere wit past, lost their wits, became insane: the phrase is still in use.

1. 1361. barnes on brest, infants : a phrase in every-day use : as thus,—“What age is the bairn ? ” “hie's jist on the breest yet," i. e. lie is a mere infant.

1. 1374. Wele wantid no wegh, no one lacked wealth or spoil : wele, wealth, property, occurs again in 11. 1696, 2717, 3356, and is a common word still.

wale what hom liste, (they just) chose and took what pleased them.

1. 1379. byggynges, buildings, houses : common to all our Scottish writers.

1. 1394. Syn the fortune felle þat faire into honde, since fortune (of war) gave thee that fair lady as a captive.

1. 1401. to lede, to live with, to hold: to lede is to keep safely, to cherish, to take charge or care of, and came to be a common term to express the relation of husband to wife : in the same sense lede is used as a s. in 1. 10653, leadership, guidance; and this use of the word is still common.

1. 1404. Wer wakyn, war (shall) rise : in 1. 404, wakyn means to raise, to stir up; and in 1. 2046, to wackon up = to spring up, to begin to act. Both meanings are still common: thus, “ ye'll waken strife wi’ that story,” “the fire 's waknin up now. The Morte Arthure, 1. 257, has, “ Now wakkenyse the were.

1. 1433. letis bele in his brest, allows to fester in his heart: to bele is to suppurate, to fester, as a wound, hence its use here.

1. 1434. mynnes, minds, remembers, broods over. is of mynd past, is

gone from (the) memory (of the one who uttered it), or, gone from the recollection (of every one else).

1. 1438. ffele folke forfaren, many people made to perish: forfare is 80 used by Barbour in The Bruce, Bk 1, 1. 478; and in Wallace, Bk 10, 1. 521 ; also in Gude & Godly Ballates, p. 167 (ed. 1868). forfaren occurs again in 1. 12118, = killed: it is still used in the sense of neglected, destitute, as in Thom's “ Mitherless Bairn.'

1. 1452. to ken, to be known, to be imagined, to speak of: þere no cause was to ken = where there was no cause at all. To ken is still so

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used, as in the phrase, “There's naething to ken o'" = there is nothing worth speaking of.

1. 1469. here þat he walt, men that he had under him, as a chief or leader : wald, to wield or manage, also to possess : it is used in both

Wyntoun. See Jamieson's Dict. 1. 1482. þrivand in Armys, prosperous, hence renowned in arms, a famous warrior: the phrase occurs again in 11. 2742, 5435, and is varied into “ þrifty in armes" in 11. 5450, 5454, which occurs in Morte Arthure, 1. 317,

“ Thyrtty thosannde be tale thryftye in armes." 1. 1484. a fyne man of lore, a very able man of learning: fine is still used in this sense.

1. 1485. þe seuyn Artes ; see note, 1. 738.

1. 1495. of þe suster, of the sisters : this pl. form is not yet gone out of use. feire should be ferre.

1. 1496. clennest, most gifted, lit, completest.

1. 1503, color, should be colour, complexion. clennes, lit. purity (of shape), symmetry.

1. 1506. in should be on.

1. 1513. syde londis, far away lands: syde is wide, large, or long, as in Lyndsay's Satire on Syde Taillis, i. e. long skirts.

1. 1515. Soche sikyng and sorow sanke in his herte ; compare with Mort. Arth., 1. 3983,

“ Was neuer sorowe so softe that sanke to my herte.”
1. 1518. hom, home.
1. 1522. thriccing should be thricching, pressing, wringing.

11. 1530-1. Wise wrightis to wale, skilled carpenters many. werk ys to caste, to devise plans, to lay out the works. 'qwuriours qweme, skilful quarrymen. qwaint men of wit, men of long experience: qwaint, (0.F. coint) skilled, experienced, sage.

1. 1533. raght vpon rowme, reached the foundations, cleared the site. rid vp þe dykis, cleared out the ditches: rid is pret. of red, to clear, to clean, to make tidy, as in the common phrase, “ to red up the house,” to put it in order. dyke is here ditch, as in l. 1566, or = wall, as in 1. 13588 ; then the passage means “cleared out the old walls :" the word is still used in both senses.

1. 1535. of, from : is frequently used.
1. 1544. selly were þik, were wonderfully thick.
1. 1563, beste, should be bestes. babery: see Halliwell's Dict.
1. 1565. wikked to assaile, difficult of assault.
1. 1567. semly to ken, beautiful to be seen, or, to behold.
1. 1575. ymur & aire, passage and ventilation : see note, 1. 897.
1. 1577. aylyng of shoures, fending from showers.

1. 1579. for wetyng of rain, because of the wetting of the rain, i. e. to be safe from a wetting by the rain.

11. 1580-3. stallis by þe strete, booths along the sides of the street:

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