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stondyng for peopull, placed for the benefit of the people. werkmen in to won, (for) workmen to abide in. and þaire wares shewe, and display their wares.

bothe to selle and to se, both for sale and to be seen : this expression is still used when working folks speak of goods exposed in shop windows. as paim selse lyked, as they (the people of 1. 1580) felt inclined : observe the form“ þaim selfe,” the “them-sellof the present time, just as himself, herself, are himsell, hersell. to ken, known, existing. as pere course askit, each after its own fashion.

In this description of Troy our author takes great liberties with his text, and gives for the most part a city of the 14th century. Indeed, the graphic picture given in these four lines is exactly that of the main street, then called Market Street, of Old Edinburgh : along which were ranged the stalls or booths of the various craftsmen or “maister men " (who, as stated in 1. 1600, "onestly ” lived in “entries” near by), and the slim erections of the “barburs bigget in bourders of the stretes leading into it. Besides, the list of craftes given by our author is not that of Guido, nor of the author Benoit de Sainte-More, but almost exactly that of the Guildry of Old Edinburgh : for a full account of which see Maitland's History of Edinburgh ; also, The Constitution of the City of Edinburgh, edit. 1826.

1. 1584. Glouers, glove makers : who made also various articles of dress, such as leather breeches, leggings, shirts, bags, pouches, and purses : in short, every article for dress or ornament that was made of soft leather. Sir Walter Scott has given us a sketch of a glover of that age in his Simon Glover of The Fair Maid of Perth. Girdellers noble, the noble crafte of Girdellers, or, rich Girdellers : the Girdellers, with the Goldsmiths, belonged to the Incorporation of Hammermen (see Maitland's Hist. of Edin., pp. 299-300), and were so called from the girdles, round plates of iron used in cooking, which formed a large and important section of their work. Besides these they made all kinds of utensils of plate iron : see note, 1. 13826.

1. 1585. Souters, shoemakers: still used, but most commonly to denote workmen of inferior ability, of low character. The word at once recals to mind the Souters of Selkirk, and Burns's Souter Johnny. Semsteris fyn, first-rate embroiderers, ornamental sewers: in our author's time there must have been a great deal of such work both on leather and cloth.

1. 1586. Turners of vesselles, turners of (wooden) dishes : almost all. the dishes used by the common people were then made of wood; and many such are still used: even in the houses of the richest they were to be found.

1. 1587. Wrightes, wrights of all kinds): as house-wright, millwright, wheel-wright. Observe that carpentours are given in l. 1597 as a separate craft from wrightes; and among the lower classes of Scotland they are still so reckoned: with them carpenters are builders of wooden ships or vessels of all sizes. In our author's time coopers would be reckoned among the carpenters, for we find that craft incorporated with

the wrights in 1489. (See Maitland's Hist. of Edin., p. 301.) Websters, weavers : a common name still. walkers of clothe, fullers of cloth : there were then various articles besides cloth subjected to fulling.

1. 1588. Arowsmythis with Axes of werre, manufacturers of arrows and war axes : archery was never muc cultivated in Scotland, hence the workman who made arrows had to make other implements of war as well. Observe, the arrowsmith did not wing or feather the arrows : that was done by the flecchour" of 1. 1593, who probably also made the shafts of the arrows : for, the parliament of James II, that sat in 1457 enacted “that there be a bower (a bowmaker) and a fledgear (an arrow-maker) in ilk lead town of the schire.” The arrowsmith, then, made only the iron or steel tips for the arrows.

1. 1590. Monymakers, coiners and money-dealers : a necessary calling where alınost all the mouey in circulation was in coins of foreign countries, and exchanges would, consequently, be frequent.

1. 1591. Parnters, most probably a contracted form of parementers, decorators of clothes or furniture, or both : a very necessary craft in that age of wild grandeur and chivalry. Pynners, pinmakers : they made pins of all kinds and sizes, from the bone, brass, and steel pins for ladies to the strong pins for heckles and harrows. As division of labour became better understood, and more delicate articles were produced, the work of the pynner became more and more limited, and the craft decayed till we find the term applied to common jobbing carpenters or wriglits employed by the authorities to set up and take down the scaffold and gallows at public executions. It occurs thus in the City of Edinburgh Accounts for the year 1565-66: "Item, the thrid day of Apryle, to be pynouris for þe bering of dailles & pouncheons fra þe blakfreris to be Croce, with be gibbett & inaidin, to mak ane scaffold & awayiting þairon pe day quhen thoma Scot was justefeith-vij s."

1. 1592. Bochers, butchers. bladsmythis, bladesmiths: makers of sword blades, daggers, spear-heads, knives, &c. bacters, bakers.

1. 1593. fferrers, fitriers: then a very important craft. flecchours, arrow-wingers : see note on Arrowsmiths, 1. 1588.

1. 1594. tapsters, sellers of liquor, chiefly ale. 1. 1595. Sporiors, spur makers. spicers, grocers, dealers in spices.

1. 1596. Cokes, cooks, keepers of eating houses. condlers, candlemakers : the vulgar name for them still.

1. 1597. coucheours fyn, first-class upholsterers, or perhaps, cabinetmakers and upholsterers. Perhaps inlayers and stone-setters are included.

1. 1598. barburs bigget in bourders of the stretes, barbers situated at the corners of the streets : a peculiarity of position to which the barbers of the present day cling. Note the use of bigget here : = placed, set, situated; a common use still. For particulars anent the craft of barbers, and their connection with the surgeons, see Maitland's Hist. of Edin., p. 313; also, Constit. of City of Edin.

1. 1599. maister-men, chief workmen, workmen who employ journeymen, chief men of the town ; in short, burgesses and owners of the booths or stalls before mentioned.

1. 1600. onestly enabit, live respectably: douce, honest folk. in entris aboute, in adjoining entries : and so they do still. The entry is a common entrance to the stairs that lead up to the several flats of the houses or lands (as they are called): on each flat one, two, or more tenants reside, and hence in speaking of any one's residence it is noted as in such and such an entry. “He lives in that entry” will be the reply to an inquiry for one's residence, although you may find it in the attics.

1. 1601. meuyt a water, flowed a river: water is still the common name of a river in Scotland : Pennant notes this in his Tour in Scotland in 1769, thus :—“Rivers in Scotland are very frequently called waters."

11. 1621-8. the chekker, the game of chess : here said to have been invented in Troy, while the legend is that it was invented by Palamedes to while away the long night-watches of the Greeks while encamped around Troy.

the draghtes, the game of draughts : now a much more common game than chess all over Scotland : chess being considered a game for the higher classes.

other dregh gaumes, other tedious or heavy games : dregh has various applications (see Gloss.), but here it implies slow and long. Complicate)

the tables, backgammon. tregetre, tricks, magic, jugglery : tragetis, tricks, deceits, is used by Douglas in his Virgil, p. 98, 1. 10.

mekill þai usit, they busied themselves much.

qwaintans, quintains : which quintain, or what game is here meant by quintain is a difficulty : even in the author's time it was considered a quaint (old fashioned) game.

For interesting particulars concerning most of the games here mentioned, see Wright's Manners and Sentiments in England: and Strutt's Sports and Pastimes.

1. 1630. of a sete riall, for a royal residence : as in a country seat, a country residence.

1. 1633. etlyng, selection, intention, purpose : see note, 1. 394, and Gloss.

1. 1634. crustrit, an error for clustrit, thick set.
1. 1640. to houe, to halt, to rest, to tarry, to linger: in the same

our present hover. The word is so used by Barbour and Douglas, also in the 'King's Quair.' See Jamieson's Dict.

1. 1649. shene is usually an adj., but is here used as an adv.

1. 1663. the cheffe, the upper end, farthest from the door; the chief, because the seat of honour.

1. 1668. With taste for to touche the table aboute, with scent (strong enough) to be felt (by all) about the table : taste, both as a noun and a verb, is used to express the exercise of any of the organs of sense, but especially those of taste and smell.



Cf. Fr. pas.

1. 1670. pight full of perrieris, thickly set or studded with precious stones. Douglas, Virgil, p. 318, 1. 24.

1. 1671. of Eyntayill fyn, of fine drapery : in this sense entayle is used by Piers Plowman, Crede, 1. 398 (Wright's ed.), and by Douglas in the Palice of Honour, pt 1, 39 ver.

1. 1672. tother hede, the other end, i. e. opposite the cheffe.
1. 1677. pase, steps : note the sing. form.
1. 1680. Insert [a] between of and god.

1. 1691. as yt most nede, as it could not fail to do: this phrase is still used.

1. 1696. See note, 1. 1374.

1. 1698. A remorec of maters, a deep regret concerning events. þat hym mys lyket, that caused him to despise himself, or, that he greatly disliked : mislike, which is still used in the West of Scotland, has both these meanings, as in the phrase, “ it mislikes me sair," means either, 'it sorely humbles me,' or, “it greatly displeases me.'

For the first sense, see Jamieson's Dict. Suppl.

1. 1704. as hom wele aght, as well they ought, or, as it well became them : the expression is still common.

1. 1707. was oute, was away: there is another meaning of oute which occurs in l. 2175, in existence, alive: both are still common.

1. 1717. lefe, should be lese, less, of lower standing in rank, as in 1. 2025.

1. 1720. gremy, perhaps should be gremp: see note, 1. 3491.

11. 1721-2. me and myne, myself and those related to me. yours, yourself and your relations : so in The Bruce, 6. 690. thaim & tharis : these are still very common expressions. 3omeryng, sorrow, cause of mourning: from A.S. geomor, sad, sorrowful ; geomrung, a lamentation, which it also means in this work : see Gloss.

1. 1726. sik, should be sib, by relation, nearly related, which is in

yow and

common use.

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1. 1732. renttes, lands or properties that yield rent: it occurs also in the sense of rental, income from property : both senses are used in the Acts of Parls. of Scotland, and are still common.

1. 1736. Thes redurse to riche, to wreak or right those acts of violence : redur, from O.Fr. roideur, and that from roide, fierce, violent, is used by Douglas in his Virgil, p. 376, 1. 54, and occurs again and again in this work.

1. 1750. our mys wreke, wreak or avenge our wrong: mys, from Goth. missa, error, occurs in Wallace, Bk 4, 11. 746, 762 ; and in Douglas's Virgil, p. 11, 1. 25.

1. 1751. feghters, warriors : occurs in Wallace, Bk 1, 1. 324, and Bk 11, 1. 866, in this sense ; but here it evidently means quarrelsome persons or bullies, those who love fighting and settle their quarrels by it. The meaning of the line (which is a form of a well-known provorb), then, is, “but our fate may be that of bullies,—a fell chaunse' (a terrible defeat).” The proverb referred to is, “ Feghters are sure

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to meet wi' their match :” when the best of it is a good thrashing, and defeat is disgrace.

1. 1752. And siker were, and it would be surer, i. e. safer, better : a common expression still.

11. 1757-8. But it likis you, but if it be in keeping with your will, or, but if it please you better: this contracted form is still in use. at a lite wordys, in a few words, or, without further ado. thus gate to begyn, to begin on this wise. ferre, farther.

1. 1763. To qwit claym all querels, to forget all our quarrels : to quit claym is to renounce claim. qweme, close, loving, good: see Gloss. and note, 1. 1809.

1. 1775. willè perto, willing, hearty besides : willè occurs again in 1. 7713.

1. 1778. This line is almost as in Piers Plow., 2. 154. (Clarendon Press Series.)

1. 1790. tome, time leisure : is so used in Piers Plowman, and is still common.

1. 1802. for eld, for generations, or ages : so used by Wyntoun, Bk. 2, prol. 1. 5, and Bk 2. 9. 75.

1. 1805. redurs : see note, 1. 1736.

1. 1809. to qweme qwit of all other, in order to become quits in all other things, or that you may be freed from all the other offences.

1. 1818. hethyng, scorn : occurs in Mort. Arth., l. 1813: Wallace, Bk 5, 1. 739 : Douglas's Virgil, p. 118, 1. 48.

1. 1822. untomly, not leisurely, hurriedly, without delay.
1. 1829. that tyme, at that time : a very common phrase in Scotland.

1. 1831. arghly, timidly, with reluctance: his previous experience certainly gave him good cause.

1. 1837. umbly, should be tumbly, leisurely, calmly: for tomely; may and is another indication of dictation.

1. 1841. as be lyne olde, a descendant of her ancient monarchs, or, sprung from her ancient kings.

1. 1849. to more pen yourselfe, to a greater than yourself.

1. 1851. mase, make : prop. makes ; but here it is 2nd pl., and in 1. 1402 it is 2nd sing. : but it was used by Scottish writers with each of the pers. prons. and in both numbers; and vulgarly it is so used still.

1. 1855. mart, marred, injured, degraded : or it may be for marrowed mated, matched with yourself: the word is still used in both meanings.

1. 1860. a clene yre, a perfect rage : clene is similarly employed still, as in 'the man 's clean wud.'

1. 1863. Be, sir, should be Ben, sher, being, sir.

1. 1865. ne acoyntaunse of my cors has, nor has any personal knowledge of me, nor has ever seen me.

1. 1889. Compare this line with Mort. Arth., 11. 1465-6. 1. 1894. lofe should be lose.

not suremers

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