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Wethur, Whethur, s. a wether, | Wilde, s. wild animals, game,

155, 161, 172.

Wex, part. p. of Wax, grown up,

Whaghe, s. 12310. See Waghe.
Whap, v. to strike rapidly, to
shoot, 4743; pret. Whappet.
Wharle, s. (A.N.) a square-headed
bolt for a cross-bow or engine,

Whe, s. a man, a noble, 8269.
See Wee.

Whedur, adv. whither, where,


Whegh, s. See Wegh.

Whelle, v. (A.S.) to quell, to lay
low, 4743.

Wheme, adj. dear, adored, 2649;
beautiful, 6203; (another form of

While, s. time, season, space, 406,
1157, 1450, 4623, 7659, 11703;
Qwhile, 11030; a hond while an
instant, shortly, immediately.
Whiles, adv. while, 1171.
Whipe, v. to wipe, to dry, 3380.
White, Whyte, v. to requite,
11509, 11726.

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Wile, s. a wile, a snare, 4444.
Wilfulde, Wilfull, adj. eager,

headstrong, selfish, 353, 725, 2872.
Will, v. to wander, to be lost, to
go astray, pret. Wilt, 2359.
Will, Wyll, adj. wrong, astray,
lost, wyll of my gate lost my way,
2369; all will of his wone = quite
homeless, 12823.

Will, v. to wish, to desire, to
command, 11367.

Wille, s. wish, desire, purpose,
disposition, determination, courage,
377, 455, 1156, 1392, 1918, 3917,
11018; Wylle, 4222.

Wille, Willy, adj. (A.S.) favour-

able, hearty, eager, 1775, 7713.
Wilne, v. (A.S.) to will, to wish,
to desire, 9202, 11012; Wylne,
203, 482.

Wilt, pret. of Will, was lost,
wandered, 2359; entangled, per-
plexed, 13160.


Winly, Wynly, adv. (A.S.) freely,
easily, quickly, 1165, 8655.
Wirde, 8. fate, luck, evil, mis-
fortune, 629, 4188, 4499, 7051.
Wirke, v. to work, to do, to use,
to dispose, 172, 576, 1881; imper.

Wise, 8. (A.S.) manner, style,

175, 232, 1156, 1177, 8387; ways,
-on pere best wise as best they
could, 2018; on all wise on all
ways, on every plan, 10486.
Wise, adj. wise, skilled, 1463,
1530; aware, 13486.
Wisshe, v. to flow, to wash; part.

Wisshyng, flowing, 1606; or from
Wisse, Wisshe, Wysshe, v. (A.S.)
to teach, to advise, to instruct, 4,
2261, 8146; to know, to be aware
of, 13229; part. Wisshyng, as a s.
advice, warning, 8151.

Wist, pret. of Wit, knew, were

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Wit, Wyt, Wytte, s. mind, sense,
skill, ingenuity, 4, 148, 1217, 1496,
1632, 6277; of here wit past =
went out of their senses, went
mad, 1360.

Wite, v. (A.S.) to blame, to re-
proach, 4936, 7069.
Wite, s. blame, 12273.

With, prep. (A.S.) by, by means
of, for, in, on account of, 132, 330,
476, 732, 1976, 2891, 10809.
With-drogh, With-droghe, pret.
of Withdraw, 1224, 2008.
Withoute, adv. outside, 1637,


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Woke, pret. of Wake, woke,
burst out, awaked, 8695, 8885.
Wold, Wolde, pret. would, wish-
ed, 1440, 1794; I wish, 472.
Wole, s. wool, fleece, 161.
Won, for Wone, v. (A.S.) to
dwell, 1581, 8127.

Wond, pret. of Wone, or Wonde,
2717, 12413, 13433; Wont, 12553;
imperat. of Wonde, refrain, 3380.
Wond, s. a wound, 10416.
Wonde, v. (A.S.) to refrain, to
be afraid, to desist through fear,
484, 590, 3380, 5048; pret.
Wondyn, 484.

Wonde, v. to wound, 1297.
Wonder, adj. wonderful, 1542;

ade. wonderfully, 9557; v. to sur-
prise, to cause to wonder, 9821.
Wonderful, adj. very great, 1355.
Wonderly, Wondurly, adv. won-
derfully, 161, 9828.

Wone, v. (A.S.) to dwell, to

abide, pret. Wond, 2717, 13433;
Wont, 12553.

Wone, s. a dwelling, a palace, a

city, 4780, 9857, 12823.
Wonen, pret. of Wyn, went, got,
reached, 1165, 4694; part. p. gone,
got, 7756; taken, captured, 8607;
Wonyn, 6963; Wonnyn, 4772.
Wong, s. (A.S.) the cheek, 1521.
Wonsped, 8. rashness, daring,
7945. See Wanspede.

Wont, 8. want, less, 12085.

Wont, pret. of Wone, 12553.
Woo, s. woe, despair, 1360.
Worche, v. to work, to result,

Worde, s. fame, talk, report, 295,

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Worse, adj. as a s. the worse, | Wyde, adj. wide, 1329.


Worship, s. fame, good name,
character, rank, renown, success,
reverence, 482, 655, 810, 1124,
1397,1488, 2261; Worchip, 13708.
Worthe, v. (A.S.) to be, to be-
come, to follow, to drive, to press,
to suffer, 597, 789, 956, 1388, 1975,
2136; or pai fay worthit or they
were killed, 6823.
Worthely, adv. becomingly, suit-
ably, 1632.

Wose, pron. whose, 5566.
Woso, pron. whosoever, whoever,


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Wothely, adv. severely, 8826.
Wox, pret. of Wax, grew, be-
came, 493.

Wrang, s. a wrong, 11616.
Wrappid, adj. hasty, angry, 1426;
misprint for Wrappid, or prob. for


Wrathe, v. (A.S.) to anger, to
become angry, 4206, 8442.
Wreke, 8.
12072; v. to avenge, to revenge,
1750, 1873.
Wright, s. (A.S.) a workman, a
carpenter, 1530.

Writhe, v. to turn, to overthrow,

Wrixle, Wryxle, v. to overpower,
to overcome, to perplex, to bandy,
445, 2061, 3120, 9327.
Wroght, part. p. of Werke,
wrought, 1436; built, 1542.
Wull, v. will, 11419, 13221.
Wull-full, adj. (= wilful, but
used as an adv.) eagerly, intensely,
3035; prob. for well-full, very.

Wyle, s. a wile, a scheme, a de-
vice, 148.
Wyll, adj.
Wylne, v.

See Will.

See Wilne.
Wyn, s. wine, 373; Wyne, 464.
Wyn, s. praise, fame, display,
13346, 13708.

Wyn, v. to get, to reach, to come
at, to obtain, to win, to take, 172,
377, 649, 953, 1138, 1468, 9212;
to manage, 3145; to capture,
8607; pret. Won, Wan, Wonen;
part. p. Wonen, Wonnyn, Wonyn.
Wynd, s. wind, breath; pai wast
þaire wynd = they talk to no pur-
pose, 9788.
Wynly, adv.
See Wit.
Wyt, Wytte, 8.
Wyvly, adv. as a wife, 3359.

See Winly.

Yald, Yalde, pret. of Yelde, to

yield, to submit, 1275, 6499, 7656.
Yalow, s. yellow, 5462,
Yark, v. to jerk, to cast, to

change, to rush, to pass, 414,
5595, 10738, 13968; to prepare,
882; to pack, to crowd, 11265.
3arpe, v. prob. for Warpe, 6081.
Yate, s. a gate, 299, 1555, 10738,

Yche, adj. each, 7878, 9683.
Ychon, s. (A.S.) each one, 5406,


Yelde, v. (A.S.) to yield, to sub-
mit, to render, 1177, 8660; pret.
Yald, Yalde, 1275, 6499, 7656;
part. p. Yolden, atoned for, 7941.
Yeme, v. (A.S.) to guide, to govern,
to keep, to guard, 136, 562, 615,
869, 1270, 10791; pret. Yemyt.
Yener, adj. eager, quick, 3955;
misprint for Yeuer, (A.S. gífer).
Yenernes, s. frankness, generosity,
eagerness, enthusiasm, 543, 869;
3ynernes, 1275; for Yeuerness.

Yenerus, adj. free, generous, | Yode, pret. of Go, went, walked,

kindly, 3917; 3yneris, 1212;
3ynerus, 357.
Yepe, adj. (A.S. geap) smart,
nimble, brave, rash, 357, 902,
7870; Yep, 11265; as a s. a clever
one, a virago, 13231.

Yepely, adr. smartly, quickly,

eagerly, 414, 902, 6081, 10738,
10791; usually, 12568.
Yerne, v. (A.S.) to desire eagerly,

11739, 11857.

Yerne, s. iron, 894, 9133, 10463;
pl. irons, chains, 3523; Yrne, 6018.

Yerth, Yerthe, s. the earth, the

ground, 6817, 8345, 10888.
Yet, adv. still, 1628.
Yett, v. (A.S. geótan) to flow, to
gush; part. Yettyng, flowing, 8175.
Yeverly, adv. quickly, willingly,

fell, flowed, 284, 908, 1018, 1244,

Yoke, v. to yoke, 902.
Yolden, part. p. of Yelde, ren-

dered, atoned for, 7941.

Yomer, v. to murmur, to lament,

to cry, 543; part. Yomeryng, as a
s. mourning, lamentation, regret,
1722, 2291, 8175, 9959.

Yond, adj. yon, 3160.`

Yong, Yonge, adj. young, 1242,

Yop, adj. eager, courageous, 6642.

See Yepe.

Yore, adj. old, former, of yore,

9959; a zer was full yore = a year
had passed away, 13968.
Yours your family and rela-
tives, 1722. See Note to IL


Yle, s. an isle, an island, 101, Yre, s. rage, ire, 1338, 1424.

153, 268.

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The Révue Critique in its review of English Gilds (1 Dec. 1871, p. 229) notices that the 13th-century French version of the 14th-century englisht "Usages of the City of Winchester" contained in p. 349-363 of our Gild volume, enables several of the Englisher's mistakes to be corrected. For instance :--


Dans le texte de M. T. S. on lit ". . . everych gret hows in wham me worketh the qwyltes, shal to the ferme vs. by the yere, they [though] he ne worche but o-lupy cloth." Le passage français correspondant est ainsi conçu ". . . chescun grant ustil dunt l'en ovre les bureaus, doit a la ferme de la vile cinc soz par an, mes ke il ne uvere fors un seul drap.” Comme on voit, le texte français permet de corriger deux contre-sens de l'anglais. Dans le premier membre de phrase, il s'agit d'un outil est non d'une maison, et dans le second, le véritable sens est à moins que, et non quoique. Le traducteur anglais aura confondu ustil avec ostel, et peut-être lu ou compris même que là où il y avait mes que, d'où il résulte que le texte qu'il traduisait était français.'

Another very difficult passage in the Custumary of Winchester, is compared with the French version, by the reviewer, M. Gustave Faigniez, and interpreted differently from Mr Toulmin Smith's sidenotes :

'Dans ce passage. . nous croyons qu'il s'agit, non d'une foire, mais de la réunion solennelle de la ghilde des marchands, d'abord pour faire un repas de corps, à l'occasion duquel on lève un droit, ensuite pour délibérer sur les intérêts communs' :

"Derechef, kant l'en purvoit bevere gilde markande, l'en doit per commun assent par les mesters de la vile enquere genz ke covenable soient e de bone fame a requiller en gilde markande. E kechescun de ceus eit en chatel 4 liv. vaillant ou plus. E ceus ke si serrunt aquilliz serunt hlotéz [sic, hébérgés, logés?] à quatre meisuns cume soleient estre a tuz tens. E kant l'en avera beu gilde markande, les quatre mesuns soi asemblerunt à voier ce ke il averunt levé et ce ke purrunt lever. E si trespas i ad fet, per commun assent soit amendé. E si nule mesun vaille plus de autre, soit chargé à as value. E ke li argent ke sera levé des 4 mesuns avantdites soit baillé assis prodes homes avantdis esleuz e jurez par commun assent a leaument garder e leaument dispendre et leal acunte rendre as prudeshomes de la vile dous feiz per an per taille ou per escrit."-Arch. Journ., vol. ix, p. 73.

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as hij ouzte to be in alle tymes. And whanne me hath wel trewe y-chaffared in the fowre howses, hij shulle hem asembly for to y-se that hij habbe tharered, and of than that hij mowe a-rere. And if that eny thing ys mysdoun, by commune assent that hit be a-mended. And 3if eny hows is more worth than an other, be hit y-charched to hys worthy. And that selver that shal be a-rered of thilke hows by-fore y-seyd, be y-take to sexe godemen by-fore yseyd y-chose and y-swore, for the commune assent, and treweleche wetye, and trewleche spende, and treweleche acountes zelde to godemen of the town twyzes by the 3ere, by skore other by scryt."-Eng. Gilds, p. 357.

To those who have the opportunity, a comparison between the whole of these two versions is worth making, as was pointed out in English Gilds, Introd. xlvi.

Mr Henry Charles COOTE, F.S.A., of Doctors' Commons, has lately written a Preface, in the "Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archæological Society," to the "Ordinances of some Secular Guilds of London from 1354 to 1496; Ordinances of St. Margaret, Lothbury, 1456, and Orders by Richard Bishop of London for Ecclesiastical Officers, 1597," extracted by Mr John Robert DANIEL-TYSSEN from the records of the Court of the Commissary of London. In this Preface Mr Coote contests Dr Brentano's view, and also Mr Toulmin Smith's, of the origin of Gilds, and shows, to his own satisfaction, that the English Gild was a direct descendant of the Roman Collegium. As it is only right that our Members should have a summary of Mr Coote's argument before them at once, his own words on pages 28-30 of his Preface are extracted here:

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