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the author, and borne out by no romance authority. In the Devise des Armes des Chevaliers de la Table Ronde, prefixed to the Roman de Gyron la Courtois, fol., his arms are thus blasoned, " Gauvain d' Orcanie portoit de purpre à ung aygle d'or à deux testes, membrées d'azur ;" and this is copied by all the writers on the (pretended) armorial bearings of the Round Table, down to Richard Robinson, who in that very scarce book, "The Auncient Order, etc., of Prince Arthure," 4to, Lond., 1583, tells us in his doggerel lines,

In purple shield an Aegle spled

All golde Sir Gawayne gaue;
One of the knights most conquerous,
Hee merits fame to haue.

Amongst them which the Table Rounde

Enobled with Renowne

By deeds of Arms in Contreyes cause,
To bring her foes a-downe.

It is certain, however, that the earlier romancers do not uniformly countenance these arms. In the Roman du St. Graal, indeed, pt. ii. ff. exxxvi, clxii, Gawayne's shield is said to be de sinople, à ung aigle d'or, which device was probably bestowed on him from winning the shield of Judas Maccabeus (ibid. f. cxxx.), bearing the same insignia; but in the Roman de Merlin, vol. i. f. clxiv, Gawayne's banner is described "de cendal d'Inde, à ung lyon d'argent," and vol. ii. f. lxxxiii, his shield, "au lion de sinople, rampant." So also in the Roman de Lancelot, i. f. xcvb, his shield is blasoned, "le champ de l'escu estoit d'or, et ung lyon de gueules." Again in the German romance of Wigalois, l. 5618, his arms are represented to be "ein wizzer hirz uf einem berge guldin," and on an ivory carving of the thirteenth century, representing Sir Gawayne reposing on the enchanted bed, (see Roman de Perceval, f. xl.) we find on his shield a lion's jamb. Consult Ferrario, Storia ed Analisi degli antichi romanzi di Cavalleria, vol. ii. p. 101, 8vo, 1828. By way of adding to this variety, the author of the Awntyrs of Arthure, st. xl. tells us his arms were "griffones of golde, engrelede fulle gaye," with whom agrees the author of the metrical Morte Arthure in the Lincoln MS., fol. 93b.

Ibid. 1. 648. At this cause the knyzt comlyche hade

In the more half of his schelde hir ymage depaynted.

The author has introduced the Virgin on Gawayne's shield in imitation of Pridwen, the famous shield of Arthur, on which her image was similarly depicted. The

passage in Geoffrey of Monmouth, lib. ix. c. 3, appears thus in the early English version of Lazamon.

He heng an his sweore

ænne sceld deore ;

his nome wes on Bruttisc

Pridwen ihaten;

ther wes innen igrauen,

mid rede gold stauen,

an on-licnes deore

of Drihtenes Moder.

See my edition of this valuable old poet, now in the press, vol. ii. p. 464, and Notes on the passage. A curious tradition or legend on the subject, evidently composed by the Monks at Glastonbury, and intitled "Quedam narracio de nobili rege Arthuro, in sacramento altaris non plene credente, qualiter confirmatus fuit in fide, factus vere credens, et quare mutavit arma sua," is preserved in the Bodleian Library, and together with several other Latin legends relating to the heroes of the Round Table, may hereafter be published by me, accompanied by translations and notes.

P. 27. 1. 691. The realme of Logres.

In the Roman de Merlin, ff. xcvii, cxviib, Logres is merely the name of London, “la maitresse cité" of Arthur's kingdom, but in the present instance it means England in general. Supposing Gawayne to set out on his expedition from Camelot in Somersetshire, he must have proceeded (in case he did not cross the Severn) through Gloucestershire and adjoining counties into Montgomeryshire, and thence by a very circuitous route to Holyhead, adjoining the isle of Anglesea, from which he passes into the long narrow peninsula of Wirral in Cheshire, the uninhabited and waste state of which in the sixteenth century is borne out by historical facts. (See Ormerod's Cheshire, vol. ii. p. 187.) The knight thence pursues his way over hill and moor, until he arrives at an immense forest, the locality of which would lead us to presume it to be Inglewood forest in Cumberland, which is elsewhere celebrated in romance. The object of his search, "the grene chapel," is stated to be but two miles distant from a castle in this forest, in which Gawayne takes up his abode. Although in cases of this sort the imagination of the romance-writer generally is the sole guide of his pen, yet I cannot help thinking some allusion may be made to the "Chapel of the Grune," which in the older maps of Cumberland is marked as existing on

the point of land on the western coast running into the æstuary of the Wampool, not far from Skinburness, which forms part of Allerdale ward, below Derwent, but its history I have in vain searched for in various topographical works. Close to this was Woltsty or Vulstey castle, said to have been built by the Abbots of Holm Cultram, to secure their treasures; and here also are said to have been preserved the magic books of the wizard Michael Scott. Hutchinson's Cumberland, i. 329, ii. 327, 340, 4to, 1794.

P. 30, 1.774. Jesus and say [saynt] Gilyan.

The latter is Saint Julian, who in his character of "the gode herberjour," was noted for supplying way-worn travellers with lodgings in a time of need. See Tyrwhitt's Note on Chaucer, C. T. v. 342.

P. 36, 1.957. That other with a gorger was gered ouer the swyre.

The gorger or wimple is stated first to have appeared in Edward the First's reign, and an example is found on the monument of Aveline, countess of Lancaster, who died in 1269. The fashion continued partially during the fourteenth century, for Chaucer's Wife of Bath is so dressed, and the usage may have lasted longer in Scotland than in England. It makes its appearance again in the reign of Henry the Sixth, as appears by the monument of Elizabeth, wife of John de la Pole, duke of Suffolk. It may be observed, however, that from the poem the usage of the gorger would seem to have been confined to the elderly ladies.

P. 39, 1. 1022. The ioye of sayn Jonez day watz gentyle to here.

This is the 27th of December, and the last of the feast. mas festivities were prolonged to New Year's Day.

Sometimes the Christ

P. 43, l. 1126. This and the succeeding stanza are quoted by Mr. Guest in his "History of English Rhythms,” vol. ii. p. 166, accompanied by a translation, which is often faulty, as will be occasionally pointed out in the Glossary. The minute particulars given here and elsewhere of "wode-crafte," may seem to have been suggested by the similar passage in the romance of Sir Tristrem ; but whether this be so or not, the present poem has greatly the superiority, both in the extent of the details and the more graphic character given to them.

The plan of hunting the deer here described may be explained as follows. On assembling at the kennel, the hounds were called out and coupled, and the hunters blew on their bugles three short moots or notes, which was responded to by the

baying of the dogs. The vewters, or men who judged of the game by the fewte or scent, then proceeded to the stations (trysteres) marked out, and the dogs were cast off. The deer, roused from the dale by the cry, seek refuge in the heights (the hyze), but are there driven back by the parties (stablye) appointed, who allow the male deer and bucks to pass, but drive back the hinds and does with shouts; and as they fly, followed by the dogs, they are pierced with arrows, or should they escape the bowmen, are pulled down and killed by the greyhounds at the stations below. Compare the passages in the Awntyrs of Arthure, st. iv. v.; Romance of Clariodus, p. 246; and Wyntoun, vi. 16, 15, vii. 1, 46.

P. 50, 1. 1327. And didden hem derely vndo, as the dede askez.

The process here described may be compared with that in Sir Tristrem, p. 158, and in Dame Juliana Berner's Book of St. Albans, sign. e. i. edit. 1496. See also La Venerie de Jaques de Fouilloux, 4to, Paris, 1585, cap. 44; and A Jewell for Gentrie, [by T. S.] 4to, Lond., 1614, sign. F. 2. The description runs thus, as far as the obscurity of the technical terms used enables me to interpret it. After taking the assay, or depth of the fat, they slit the slot (the hollow above the breastbone, or, according to others, the pit of the stomach), and take out the erber (the conduit leading to the stomach), cut it with a sharp knife, and tie up the severed parts; then rip the four limbs, and rend off the hide. They next open the belly, and take out the bowels, cutting away lustily, and bear away the knot; then grasping the gargulun, they quickly divide the weasand or gullet from the wind-hole, and throw out the small guts. Afterwards they proceed to carve out the shoulders, by a small aperture, so as to keep the sides whole, and divide the breast in halves. Then beginning again at the gargulun, the deer is slit up to the fork; the avancers are voided out, and the fillets cut away by the ribs, and so by the ridge-bone even to the haunch, all of which form the noumbles, and are taken away together. By the fork of the thighs they lance the flaps behind, and hew it in two parts by the backbone. After this the head and neck are cut off, and next the sides severed from the chine; the raven's bone or fee is cast on a bush, and the sides pierced through and hung upon the houghs of the haunches (?), as the fee of those who were entitled to them. Lastly, they feed their hounds on the hide, with the liver, lights, and skin of the paunch, mingled with bread dipt in blood, and blow prys, consisting of "two longe notes and the rechate." The latter part of this ceremony, then considered so important, is amply described in the Mayster of the Game, a treatise compiled for king Henry the Fifth, when prince; but the details are passed over as belonging "moor to wodemannys craft than to hunters." See MS. Cott.

Vesp. B. xii. f. 94. The modern practice of breaking a deer may be found in "L'école de la Chasse," par M. le Verrier de la Conterie, 8vo, Rouen, 1763, part ii. p. 182.

P. 54, l. 1440. Long sythen for the sounder that wizt for olde.

The meaning of this line is obscure, but it seems to be, that the boar from its age had long since quitted the sounder or herd; according to the Book of St. Alban's,

Now to speke of the boore, the fyrste year he is
A pygge of the sounder callyd, as haue I blys;
The seconde yere an hogge, and soo shall he be,
And an hoggestere, whan he is of yeres thre;
And when he is foure yere, a boore shall he be,
From the sounder of the swyne thenne departyth he;
A synguler is he soo, for alone he woll go.

Edit. 1496, Sign. d. i.

See also the treatise on hunting, by Twety, MS. Cott. Vesp. A. xii. f. 3b, and the chapter in the Mayster of the Game, on the wild boar, f. 33.

P. 60, l. 1605. Thenne a wyze that watz wys vpon wod-craftez, etc.

This process of unlacing or undoing the boor is told more at length in the Book of St. Alban's, sign. e, i, and the reward given to the hounds is especially noticed in another passage.

Thrugh your houndys by strengthe yf that he be dede,
They shall haue the bowelles boyllyd wyth the brede.
Sign. d. ib.

And so also in the treatise ascribed to Twety, written originally in French, in the time of Edward the Second. "And whanne the boor is itake, he be deffetyd al velue, and he shal haue xxxii hasteletys; and ye shal 3if your houndys the bowellis boyled wt breed, and it is callyd reward, for cause that it is etyn on the erthe, and not on the skynne.”—f. 6".

P. 63, l. 1699. Summe fel in the fute, ther the fox bade, etc.

That the hunting of the fox was an accustomed sport as early as the beginning of the thirteenth century we have the authority of Lazamon, who in his translation of the Brut inserts a passage not in his original, in which king Arthur compares the position of Cheldric, in the forest of Caledon, to that of bold Reynard after a chace,

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