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153. The horse of Toorkistan has long been famous, and forms the chief article of export from that country to Afghanistan, India, and Persia. From certain quarters in Khoorasan (chiefly the north-west) horses are exported to the same countries, but in less numbers. In both cases it is chiefly the pasturing tribes who rear this animal, which is but rarely housed even in winter, or in the cold country of the Ymaks; they are not very numerous in Bulochistan, neither are they found of remarkable goodness either in that country or in Afghanistan. In the neighbourhood of Bameean however, and some other parts of the north, is a breed of very strong and serviceable ponies. Those of Tibet are broader, smaller, and stronger. In the country of the Yoosufzyes, and some parts of the country between the Indus and Hydaspes, in Bunnoo and Daman, we find a breed of Tazee horses, which are much esteemed. Horses in Kushmeer are neither numerous nor good, but there are considerable numbers of ponies.
154. The ass gradually improves as we proceed westward from the Company's provinces. Perhaps the best are those in the west of Khoorasan, but even these are much inferior to the Arabian or the Spanish. Asses are imported into Cabul from Bokhara and the north-west of Toorkistan. Mules are scarcely raised in Toorkistan, the best are bred in Khoorasan; a slender species, but yet hardy, is bred in Poth war and the neighbouring districts. They are raised in the vallies of Jajee and Foree, in Teera, and some other places.
155. Tibet, Kushmeer, Kashkur, Keerategin, Durwaz, the upper parts of Budukhshan and the Huzara country breed no camels, being too cold, moist, or rugged, for that animal. Beyond the Jaxartes is the two humped species, in the Toorkee language called uzhree, and by our writers, (I believe) Bactrian; his height is far less than that of the Indian camel, his hair longer, he is not capable of bearing severe heat, and is not easily naturalized even in Bokhara. In the kingdom of Kokun he is the prevalent species, but in some places neither is known. The camel called bughdadee, has also two humps, but his height is equal to that of the Indian. He is found chiefly in the south-west of Khoorasan, yet even there is much out numbered by the Indian species. This species is very abundant in the whole of Bulochistan, in Sindh, and the borders of the Indian desert. In those countries soldiers are often mounted on camels, and some breeds are remarkable for their swiftness. The camel of Ghuznee and Cabul, originally of the same species, is now somewhat changed in his properties by the climate; he cannot bear the winter cold of these
countries, and probably exceeds the Indian camel in strength, but yields to him in patience of thirst and hunger. With respect to appearance, he is not so tall and slender in his limbs.
156. The Punjab, Sindh, and the Indian provinces of the Afghan monarchy considered as a whole, have cattle nearly in the same proportions as in our upper provinces, and the quality is not very different. In the detail we find great differences, the cattle on the west side of the Jumna are superior to those on the east, the oxen of Nagour and cows of Hurriana are much celebrated, even the cattle of the Punjab are probably superior to those of our provinces east of the Jumna; those of Peshawur are certainly inferior, and the cattle of Sindh are not remarkably good; yet great numbers of them were carried from Buhawulpoor by Tymoor Shah's army to Cabul, where the breed is still perceptible. The native breed of Cabul yields the most wretched bullocks, but considerable numbers are every year brought from Nasour by the Lohanees, and others who travel on the southern road to India. Cattle are brought to Peshawur from the Doval of the Hydaspes and Indus. In Seeweestan cattle are not numerous or good. In the middle and west of Afghanistan and in Khoorasan, they constitute no very considerable part of the national wealth. Being kept by farmers, their numbers are in proportion to the village, and hence they are more frequently found among the hills. The pastoral tribes of the open country keep but a few bullocks to carry their tents, the cow is therefore usually house fed, or fed on meadows and gardens near the village. Round the lake of Seestan, however, are seen great herds of cattle, which pasture on the marshy grounds. The cows of the west in general give more milk than those of our provinces, and in the Ymak country some give as far as fifteen seers; a very small breed kept by some tribes of the Kafeir's gives as far as twenty seers; the cows of Kushmeer give a great deal of milk of a poor quality.
157. The buffalo is not fitted for cold countries, hence he is scarcely to be seen in Kushmeer, notwithstanding its moistness; and by far the greatest stock is in Poonuch and Rajur and its other dependencies to the south, which have a much warmer climate. Far less is the buffalo suited to the climate of Cabul, which is both colder and drier, yet in both countries diligent search would probably discover a few. Buffaloes are numerous in some parts of the Punjab, and they give more milk than in the Company's upper provinces; as far thence to the north and west as the warmer plains and vallies extend, this animal is bred, but according to circumstances in greater or lesser
numbers. In Seeweestan sheep are the favourite stock, and in the Daman, cows. In the warm parts of Pukhlee buffaloes are very numerous, and in Swad and Bhooner they constitute the chief stock, yet are buffaloes not used for carriage in those countries. Beyond Jellalabad and Lughman, buffaloes are scarcely seen. The climate of the warm parts of Toorkistan and Khoorasan is certainly favourable enough to this animal, which is yet in a manner unknown; some are indeed seen near Candahar, and a few years ago several were kept in the neighbourhood of Milkh. The buffalo probably extends from the delta of Sindh, west, along the coast of Bulochistan; but the whole of the inland parts of the west, and the whole of the hilly tracts of Bulochistan are destitute of this animal.
158. Sheep are kept in all these countries, nor does there appear to be in Bulochistan any tribe which depends on camels alone, like the Arabs of the desert. The sheep are of two breeds, easily distinguished; the heavy tailed (called doomba), and the light tailed. The latter species is that found in India, and thence extend west into Sindh, and part of Seeweestan. The sheep of the Daman are generally of this kind, which also prevails nearly to the utmost limits of Pothwar. In Kushmeer, Tibet, Kashhur, most parts of upper Budukhshan, and among the Kafeir's, no other is known. In such a tract of country many varieties must occur in appearance and value; the finest wool seems to be that of the Indian desert, and the Rajpoot country. The doomba is found in all the other countries; and is the prevailing species in Persia, with the exception of Geelar and Mazundarum. The doombas of Toorkistan, and particularly that bred by the Kuzzahs is very large. The doomba seems a superior species to the Indian sheep; the wool on an average is equal, the carcase larger, and the flesh richer flavoured. The lamb is reckoned one of the delicacies of the spring season. The pasturing tribes of the west do not in general suffer the ewes to lamb twice, but where sheep are kept by farmers in small numbers an autumn lamb is dropped, which however does not thrive so well as the spring one. In Kushmeer, the environs of Cabul, and most other places where the sheep are housed in the winter, only one lamb is had from the ewe, but in the upper parts of Budukhshan a contrary practice prevails.
159. Every flock of sheep ought to contain a few goats, which lead the way in pasturing. In some countries goats and sheep are nearly equally mixed, but some situations are so steep and rugged, that sheep cannot accompany the goats. Where it is practicable to keep them, sheep are a more profitable stock. The goats of these countries present
some striking varieties; black is the most common colour, but those of the mountains from which issue the Beah and Sutluj are generally white. The goats of the Kafeir's have sometimes very long horns, curiously twisted; those of the Wuzurous have sometimes long horns, and each horn twisted as it were round itself, like the pillars of Jewish architecture. In that great range of mountains from which the Ganges and Jumna flow, we find even as far as the left of the Indus a breed of goats of great size and strength, and the natives employ them to carry commodities on roads not practicable to any other beast of burden.
160. In the Punjub the same animals are employed for carriage and burden as in our provinces, and the properties are nearly the same. Elephants, become rarer and rarer as you proceed westward. Beyond the Indus an elephant draws as many spectators as an European. In the Doab of the Hydaspes and Indus, mules are a good deal used for carriage. In Sindh, the countries bordering to the east of the Indian desert, and Bulochistan, camels are the chief beasts of burden, and are cheap and good. With respect to the other countries, we are to distinguish carriage as it may be, 1st, that of armies; 2nd, that of caravans or of persons making distant journies; 3rd, that of farmers on their own farms, or for the supply of provisions to towns, or distribution of town manufactures in the neighbourhood, or the interchange of commodities, within small or moderate distances. The chief carriage of the Persian army is by mules and strong ponies. The latter are by no means so esteemed as the former, yet by reason of their cheapness are actually found in the proportion of sixty or seventy to one hundred of the whole. All other carriage is but inconsiderable. Bullocks are not used except for dragging artillery, a use they are also put to in the Doorany army. In both countries it would be much more advisable to employ horses. Certain of the Loor tribeз employ asses, and officers of rank who may have heavy baggage keep some camels; were it not for these last, the motion of an army would be scarcely impeded by its baggage, for the camp followers who do not in number exceed the fighting men are almost to a man mounted on the sumpter animals of their masters. This constitution of their army must alone give the Persians infinite advantages in a war with Hindoostanee forces, incumbered with multitudes of timid attendants, and impeded by a sluggish baggage. The Afghans, intermediate in situation between those two nations, adopt in part the usages of both, in this important particular, camels however are certainly the chief carriage of their army, which generally makes slow marches. On oc
casion of emergency, however, it is known to leave its baggage behind and make very long ones. The small armies now on foot on the sides of the various competitors for the throne use, it is probable, more mules and ponies than camels, and perhaps many years may not elapse before the former species of carriage gain much ground; the poverty alone of the soldiery now prevents its more general adoption. Runjeet Singh has made some progress in providing mules for part of his forces, but his situation is not favourable for procuring those of the most serviceable kind.
161. For long journeys the camel is the most economical carriage, and in caravans they outnumber all other animals. There are however some exceptions; the trade to Chinese Toorkistan from whatever quarter, seems to be conducted by means of ponies and horses. Commodities brought by the people of Toorkistan to Cabul are almost all on horses, but such of the inhabitants of this side of the mountains gas trade to Toorkistan mostly use camels. The trade from Peshawur to Cabul, and Cabul to Peshawur, is carried on by means of all the various beasts of burden in the country; perhaps an equal weight of commodities is annually transported on camels, mules, and ponies. Some bullocks, originally Indian, bring loads from Cabul, but seldom return, being readily disposed of in Peshawur. Bullocks are little used for long journeys, except in the cases already mentioned (see paragraph 160); a few attend the army besides those of the artillery. With respect to the third species of carriage, it would lead into great details to particularize the usages of all the various districts, for within a short distance is often the greatest diversity of practice. On farms, in a vast majority of cases, the chief carriage is by bullocks. The intercourse between the towns and the neighbouring country, is as much by means of other animals, except in the quarters towards India. The wandering tribes in general have their tents carried on camels, but where, as in the west of Toorkistan and north-west of Khoorasan, they drink from draw-wells, the leathern bucket for drawing water is carried by an ass or a bullock. The tents of the Ymaks in general are carried on ponies and horses, but the Jamsheed us use a good number of bullocks. In the upper Sindh and lower Punjab, asses bring the greatest part of the fuel into towns. Asses bring great quantities of grain from Bajour into Peshawur; in the former country camels are scarcely known, although the soil and climate is not unfavourable; there are still fewer in the moist country of Koonur; asses are of much use in the internal traffic of both, and in the country of the upper Mihmuds. In the plain of Peshawur, bullocks are mostly used in bringing grain