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We thus get
kar"-n-as, 'I was
personal pronoun, in Kaçmiri we may optionally add the suffix an, which means by him,' just as much as af tami does, and we get karu-n, which also means 'made by him,' or 'he made' Suppose we want to express who was made by him, and that the person is the speaker, then we can say a boh karu-n, 'I was made by him,' i.e., he made me.' Instead, however, of boh, we may add the suffixas, which means 'I.' made by him,' i.e., ' he made me.' Again, if we wish to emphasise the fact that I was the person made, we can add the suffix fa ti, and we get the form fa kar"-n-as-ti, which means, 'I also was made by him,'' he made me also.' Again, if we want to make the verb interrogative, we can add, after all these, the interrogative particle, a, thus, करुनस्त्या karu-n-as-ty-ā, 'was I also made by him ?' did he make me also ?
The above examples will show the freedom with which these suffixes are used in Kashmiri. They can be combined almost ad infinitum. These suffixes may be divided into two classes, adverbial and pronominal, and in this order, I now proceed to discuss them.
These suffixes are added to all verbs.
Before all these the final
h of a verbal form is elided (iv. 131). The ordinary rules of sandhi Thus i and u before a become y and w respectively, ya
(ě) +ā becomes yā, and a+ā becomes ā.
1. n. This negatives the verb (viii. i. 13). Thus,
करान् बुड् karān chuh, he
af karán chih, they af karān chine, they do not
Ta ga karān chuna, he does not
2. a. This gives an interrogative force to the verb (viii. i. 14).
a, when the person addressed is a woman. If a man is addressed,
• is used in the first person Singular, and Plural, and in the third person.
a in the first person
karān chěso, am I (fem.) making ? here a man is
addressed. If a woman is addressed, the speaker would say
au al afa karān chyā (chěh +ā) as', are we (fem.) making? If a
woman is addressed, the speaker must say
chey. See No. 4.
. This may be substituted for
a, in the following cases.
(a) In the first person Singular Masculine (viii. i. 15)
करान् पुस् karān chus, I make.
karan chuse (instead of
करान् हुसा karān chusā), am I making ?
(b) Always in the first person Singular Feminine, when a
man is addressed (viii. i. 17). Thus,
karān ches, I (fem.)
ma e karān chès”, am I (fem.)
making? Here the speaker is addressing a man. If she was addressing a woman she would Bay करान् व्यसय् karān chěsay.
(c) Honorifically in the second person Singular and Plural
(viii. i. 15).
▼ karān chukh, thou
faa karān chiwa, you make.
that the vowel remains short.
ay or, after a vowel, y. Used as follows, instead of
(a) In the first person Singular and Plural Feminine, and in the third person Singular and Plural Feminine (viii, i. 17, 18), when a woman is addressed. Thus,
addressing a woman. If she were addressing a man, she would say a karān chès". करान् व्यय् असि karān chčy asi, are
we (fem.) making ?
करान् ष्यच् खड् karan chěy sūh, is she (fem.) making?
कराम् व्यय् तिम karān chěy time, are they (fem.) making?
time, they (fem.) make. In the three last, the speaker is also addressing a woman. were addressing a man, she would say I chyā, instead of chey. (b) In the second person Feminine optionally instead of ◄a, when a woman is addressed honorifically (viii. i. 16). Thus,
करान् व्यख् karān chčkh, thou
करान् ष्यव karān chews, you
करान् व्यखय् karān chčkchay, or करान्
karan chokha, is Your Honour (fem.) making? Here the speaker is necessarily addressing a woman.
करान् व्यवय् karān cheway, or करान्
44 karān chew, are Your Honours (fem.) making? The speaker is again addressing
5. fa ti (iv. 179). This suffix is used to signify 'also,' 'indeed.' Thus,
करान् हुड् karān chuh, he करान् बुति karān chuti, he makes
aft kari, he will make.
ffa kariti, he will indeed make.
6. na, nay (viii. i. 14, 16). This is a compound of a na (No. 1) and ā (No. 2) or ◄ (No. 3), or of a na, and ¶ (No. 4). It gives the force of an interrogative negative, and is used like the separate parts.
karan chuh, he
करान् बुना karān chunā, does he not make ?
So karān chěnā, does she not make ?
karan chěkh, thou
karān chěw", you
tyā or and a (No. 2), or
emphasis (viii. i. 14).
करान् व्यख्ना karān chčkchnā, dost thou (fem.) not make?
karan chěkhnay, does
Your Honour (fem.) not make ?
करान् यवना karān chčwenā, do you
(fem.) not do? or
karan chewanay, do Your Honours (fem.) not make?
tyay. This is a combination of fa ti, (No. 5)
ay (No. 4). It implies a question with
TIT TAI karān chutyā, does he make it) ?
nâfqaı karyōntyā, did he make (it) ?
aft karityā, will he make (it) ?
karan chewatyay, do Your Honours (fem.) make
8. सन sane, सना sanā, शासन āsane, used in a question with doubt. If there is an interrogative word also in the sentence, it is added to it. Otherwise it is added to the verb. [
sana is not used with a verb].
sanā and 17 āsane, is suffix No. 2 already described
(viii. i. 25, 28). Thus,
khyawan chwāsana (chuh +āsana), is he really
aiga Qala gi kyāsano (kyāh+sano) khyawān chwã, what, is
he really eating?
aaa @ala ya kyāsanā khyawān chuh, what, is he eating?
ez ama graig f☛ baṭa kaityāsana (kaiti +āsana) āsān chih
argar alfa faang ▼▼ karsanā bāgi yiwān chuh, at what hour
is he coming? (kar=when? if bặgi=Skr. bhāga, a portion of the day or night).
aga fafa karsanā yiyi, when will he come ?
faa la kṛt'sanā āsahặn, how many may there be?
et sa. This is the vocative particle (vide ante, Vol. Ixvii, It is used exactly like san. Thus,
aaret ve effe kaityāsā (kait +ā-sā) lūkh ặs', how many people were there ?
1. Before these as before all other suffixes, the final ▼h of a verb is elided (iv. 131). So also, an initial a of a suffix is elided when the verb, either after the elision of h or not, ends in a vowel (viii. i. 39). Thus, +¶¶ chuh+am becomes first + chu+am, and then बु+म् chu+m= 4 chum, there is to me.
2. If the final kh of a suffix is followed by another pronominal (not an adverbial) suffix commencing with a vowel, the kh becomes h (viii. i. 38). Thus,
aga karān chu-h-as (for chu-kh + as), thou makest for him.
a karān chu-h-akh, thou makest for them.
3. The termination av becomes
before suffixes (viii. ii.
aǹą karō-th (karav+ath), we shall make thee.