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is considered a valuable wood in ship building. Hamilton describes it as growing of 6 feet girth in Goalpara, much used in building, but soft. Capt. Hannay, in describing the wood in Assam, says it is well known at Dacca and is admirably adapted for that portion of boats under water; well seasoned, it is a good wood. The Jarool is very scarce. I have seen the tree growing to a great size in the forest of Malabar, where it is not much esteemed.
21. ASSUN-Terminalia tomentosa. W. and A.,—Arjun, Arjuna, W. and A.-T. bellerica, T. calappa, &c. &c. are all light coloured tough useful timber, not very ornamental, but often for their great size very useful. Hari is a common name of the different species amongst natives. They are to be found all over India, and generally valued where they grow. Roxburgh mentions one species as growing to such a size as to be made into solid wheels for Buffalo carts. The Assuns were found by Capt. Baker to surpass every other tree in elasticity,-to break with 903 tbs. with specific gravity of 986. Capt. Hannay speaks in the highest terms of two species, but he describes the wood as very light, whereas from the specific gravity mentioned above, it is evidently a very heavy wood;-he says the wood has the quality of standing the weather well, and kept constantly in water, to harden and get black coloured. It appears to me admirably adapted for oars and ship's
The above are, I believe, the most valuable timber trees in Bengal, and the number is indeed a large one, to which I could have added as many more nearly as good, plainly showing that there is no country in the world to surpass this in its timber produce. I regret much that my approaching departure for England renders it impossible for me to make this list as complete as I could have wished. The subject is a deeply interesting one, and having paid great attention to it in India, I hoped some little advantage may have been derived from my observations. There are several trees no doubt possessed of equally valuable properties, but they are only known by uncertain native names. I would respectfully suggest that Government be requested to direct their officers located in favourable positions to send in leaves, flowers and fruit of the trees reputed in their neighbourhood to be useful for timber. As it may be seen above that peculiar uses seem to run in the same natural family, a botanist could in every case indicate the probable value of the timber. I would
observe that it is a well known fact, that wood grown in hilly countries is far superior to that grown in the deep soil of the plains. The trees are longer in coming to perfection, and mature their juices more slowly and solidly. This is particularly exemplified in the Sandal wood, which never is possessed in the plain of the good rich scent that it has when growing in the hills of Mysore, about 2000 feet above the sea. The Cedar of Lebanon also, which I believe to be identical with Cedrus deodar of the Himalayas, is almost valueless as a timber tree, unless grown in rocky stony places, where there is but little soil. It is very remarkable to observe the difference of the quality of the Deodar wood which is grown on the south side of the snowy range from that produced in Kunawur on the precipitous sides of the Sutledge. Another remark I would particularly call attention to, is the felling of timber at the proper season when the sap is at rest. It requires no botanist to point out when this is to be done, as although the leaves do not fall off in India, as in more temperate climates, it is impossible to find any difficulty in deciding from the appearance of the tree, when the time for felling has arrived. When the sap is rising, the leaves are generally somewhat soft and perfect. When it is at rest, the leaves are harder, and in India almost always corroded by insects. In consequence of the facility of barking a tree when the sap is rising, oaks are often felled at this season in England, always with disadvantage to the timber, and this same facility of barking may also be an inducement to others in this country to fell timber at improper periods of the year.
Report on a Passage made on the Nurbudda River, from the Falls of Dharee to Mundlaisir, by Lieut. KEATINGE, and of a similar passage from Mundlaisir to Baroach, by Lieut. EVANS. (Communicated by the Government of the N. W. Provinces.)
No. 753 of 1847.
From J. THORNTON, Esquire, Secretary to Government N. W. P., To the Secretary to the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, dated Head Quar
ters, the 4th October, 1847.
SIR, I am directed by the Hon'ble the Lieutenant Governor N. W. Provinces, to forward to you for submission to the Asiatic Society, the
accompanying copy of a report by Lieut. Keatinge, of a passage made by him during the last rainy season on the Nurbudda river, from the falls of Dharee to Mundlaisir, and also copy of a report by Lieutenant Evans, of a similar passage at the same season, from Mundlaisir to Baroach.
2. The Lieutenant Governor considers that these papers might be advantageously printed in the Society's Journal in continuation of Mr. Shakespear's note on the Nurbudda river.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient humble Servant,
the 4th October, 1847.
Secretary to Govt. N. W. P.
From Lieut. R. H. KEATINGE, Asst. to the Poll. Agent, Nimar.
To Captain P. T, FRENCH, Poll. Asst. in Nimar, dated Mundlaisur, 6th August, 1847.
SIR,-I have the honor to inform you that according to your suggestious I left Mundlaisur on the 29th of July, and proceeded towards Dawree, to see if a road could be made along either bank of the Nurbudda, so as to circumvent the falls opposite that place.
2nd. Leaving Burwae, on the 30th of July, I proceeded to Seylanee, a distance of 14 miles, by the road lately cleared; about 6 miles from Burwae, the jungle becomes a forest, and continues so to Dawree, which is 18 miles from Seylanee.
3rd. During the whole of the day, as I rode through the forest, I was surprized to see large and old timber left uncut within a mile of the river, but on enquiry was informed that it was impossible to transport any but the smallest sized trees, even that short distance, owing to the absence of tolerably clear paths.
4th. Bamboos, however, are cut in great numbers, and brought to the falls, where the Gonds, who carry them there, exchange them for grain with speculators from Mundlaisur and Mehasur.
5th. On the upper or Eastern side of the falls of Dawree, the rock slopes into the river at an angle of from 1 to 2 degrees, and is so
smooth and level that in most places a cart could even now be driven over it; below the fall, however, the rock ends in abrupt and irregular steps of from 10 to 50 feet, and during the three days I spent at Dawree, I looked in vain for a place where a road could be made without considerable expense, to slope down to the water's edge.
6th. Within half a mile of the village there is a perpendicular rock 51 feet high, under which boats could come at all seasons, and if a crane were placed on the top of it, goods of every description and even light boats, could, without the least difficulty, be drawn up and let down. From thence to the navigable part of the river above the falls is only a distance of 1490 yards, which could be made fit for carts at the cost of 4 or 500 Rs.
7th. Timber, both large and of a good description (ungun) grows on the spot, so that no difficulty exists to large and powerful (though doubtless rough) cranes and windlasses being constructed on the rock where they are to be used.
8th. Many of those who now go up the Nerbudda for the purpose of buying or cutting wood, leave their boats at Dawree, whilst others with great labour drag them (if light enough) over the rocks, but for this many men are required; all these are of the poorest of these poor provinces, and unaided will never be able to afford the expense of in any way surmounting the difficulties of the river at Dawree; but I feel convinced that were such a measure undertaken, we should see a trade spring up between this and the Hoosungabad Provinces.
9th. Several natives with whom I conversed had been up the river as far as Chund-ghur, the site of the great Iron mines, 12 coss above Dawree, and report the stream quite as clear as below.
10th. On the 3rd of August, at 12 o'clock, I left Dawree in a boat with six boatmen, about the same number of attendants, and a good load of baggage, and arrived at Oonkur, a distance of 20 miles, at 5 P. M., without meeting any obstacles or delay.
11th. On the 4th of August, I left Oonkur at 5 A. M. and arrived at Mundlaisur (30 miles) at 6 P. M., having stopped an hour on the way; our progress this day was much impeded by a smart westerly wind, but the river presented no sort of difficulty.
12th. During the rains of 1845 I went by the river from Mundlaisur to Oonkur and back, and in March, 1846, I proceeded from
Oonkur to Dawree and back again, the stream being at that time very low, but on neither occasion did I meet with any obstruction.
I have, &c.
(Signed) R. H. KEATINGE, Lieut.
Assist. to the Poll. Agent in Nimar.
P. S.-I have the honor to enclose a section of the proposed road along the northern bank of the river at the falls.
Report of Voyage down the Nurbudda from Mundlaisur to Baroach, in the month of July, 1847.
I left Mundlaisur on the morning of the 22nd July, 1847. Having two boats, one the common ferry boat, flat-bottomed, wall-sided; about 30 feet long and 24 high, requiring 4 men to manage, and capable of carrying 6 marries pucka; (2880 lbs.,) and the other consisting of 3 canoes, lashed together with a platform of bamboos upon them. This latter I took, having some doubt as to the possibility of getting a large boat down the Hirn Phal rapids, remembering what Captain Anderson had done (vide his report) and intending, in case of extreme difficulty, to unlash the canoes, and carry them round the rapids, launching them again below. The result, however, will show that the flat bottomed are the boats best of all calculated in all seasons for this navigation.
2nd. We reached Chiculda on the 24th, a distance, I suppose, of nearly 60 miles. The only obstruction, below Mundlaisur to this point, is the Suheshur Dharrah. This has been so well described by Captain Anderson, that I need not enlarge upon it. It can either be got over by a road along the southern bank, or by, as he proposes, deepening the backwater. Should the former, for reasons hereafter given, be preferred, the accompanying plan drawn by Lieutenant Keatinge, of the Bombay Artillery, Assistant at Mundlaisur, who has kindly levelled and surveyed this spot, will show the road proposed, a distance of about 1200 yards in all.
3rd. I left Chiculda on the 25th, and reached the Hirn Phal at 12 of noon. This distance, about 16 or 17 miles by the map, is perfectly