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year would appear to be Çaka 1120, making his reign nine years. But the copperplates ascribe to him ten years, which, if aŋkas, would give eight years. This difference, if not due to mistake, is at present inexplicable.
Aniyanka Bhima Dēva has been once mentioned in the copperplates as Ananga Bhima Dēva, and is distinctly' mentioned as such in the stone inscription at Cātēçvara temple, District Cuttack. [See Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. LXVII, 1898, Babu N. N. Vasu on "The Caṭeçvara Inscription," p. 320, 1.7; I have got a pencil rubbing of it on wax cloth].
He was the son of Cōraganga, and brother of Rājarāja II. He succeeded Rajaraja apparently peacefully [cf. line 7, Catēçvara inscription, p. 320; and Mēghēçvara inscription, 1. 11].
He had a Brahmin minister named Govinda [Cāṭēçvara inscription 1. 8, p. 321]. During his reign, Rājarāja Historical Facts. II's brother-in-law Svapnēçvara Dēva had the temple of Meghēçvara built. The date of this temple would thus be approximately between Çaka 1115 and 1120, or between A.D. 1193-4. and 1198-9.
VI. Rājarāja III,
[Çaka 1120- Çaka 1133.]
Only one inscription of this king's time is known:
Çaka-varşambulu 118 gunēņți çri- Ep. Rep., No. 381, of Verified.
mad - Anainṭta varmma-dēvara pra
A little before 602 A.H., June or Tabakāt-i-Nāșiri,
The first Mahome dan invasion of Orissa.
Nrsimha Dēva I
Bhānu Dēva I
No inscriptions with regnal years have yet been found of the next three kings, till one comes to Nṛsimha Dēva Last year. II. Falling back upon the years given in the Puri and Kendupāṭnā copperplates, I find that if treated as ankas, they just fit in, thus:
Name of the king.
First Mahomedan invasion.
11th aŋka or 9th year; 2nd aŋka or 1st year.
Period of reign.
1200/1 as deduced from his inscriptions.
17th aŋka or 14th year
These do not disagree with the inscriptional or other dates attributable to the times of the respective kings.
Rājarāja III was son of Aniyanka Bhima Deva by his chief queen Bāghalla Dēvi. He is spoken of as "Rajendra" in Catēçvara inscription, 1. 9, p. 321.
The first Mahomedan inroad into Orissa took place in his reign.
"Trustworthy persons have related after this manner, that Muḥammad-i-Sheran and Aḥmad-i-Sheran were two brothers, two among the Khalj Amirs in the service of Muḥammad-i-Bakht-yār; and when the latter led his troops towards the mountains of Kamrud and Tibbat, he had despatched Muḥammad-i-Sherān and his brother, with a portion of his forces, towards Lakhan-or and Jāj-nagar. When the news of these events" [the retreat and death of Muhammad-i-Bakht-yār] "reached Muḥammad-i-Sherān, he came back from that quarter and returned again to Diw-kot" (pp. 573-4).
Orissa was known to Mahomedan historians under the name Jājnagar. The inroad of Muḥammad-i-Sheran took place shortly before the assasination of Muḥammad-i-Bakht-yār, in 602 A.H. (p. 513), and just about the time of his departure for Kāmrūd, which according to Major Raverty, happened towards the close of 601 A.H. (note 4 to p. 560). Hence the approximate time of this inroad, the first Mahomedan invasion of Orissa, would be the close of 601 A.H, or about June or July of A.D. 1205.
VII. Anaŋga Bhima Dēva III.
[ Çaka 1133 Çaka 1160. ]
The following inscriptions of the time of this king are known:
Inscription No. 3, on
Catēçvara inscription, Circa Çaka 1142 Jour. As. Soc. Beng.,
tṛtīyāyē guru-vārē Magha-nakṣatrē,
Between 608 and 622 A.H., say about
Jour. As. Soc. Beng.,
Tabakat-i-Naşiri, Fight with
No regnal year of this king being available, his first and last years have been calculated by treating the year assigned to him in Puri and Kōndupātņā
First and last years.
copperplates, as anka year [see supra, the remarks under Rājarāja III, p. 117].
He was son of Rājarāja III by his Queen Sadguna or Mankuṇa Dēvi of Cālukya race. He is styled “Trikalinga-natha" in Catēçvara inscription, 1. 12,
He had a Brahmin minister named Visņu who fought for him with "Tummāṇa-pṛthvi-patēḥ” (Cāṭ. ins., 11. 14-5),
and with the Yavanas, "Yavan-avan-indusamarē” (Do., 1. 15). Babu N. N. Vasu reads Tummāņa as Tumghāņa, and identifies this with Tughril-i-ṭughān Khān [J.A.S.B., XLV, 233-4; XLVII, p. 319]. The identification is open to objections. Firstly, the expression "Tummāṇa-prthvi-patēḥ" means "of the king of the Tummāņa land," and therefore Tummāņa cannot be applied to any person. Secondly, the fight with Tughan Khan took place on 13th Shawwäl, A.H. 642, or in March 1245 A.D., i.e., six or seven years after Ananga Bhima Dēva had ceased to rule.
In fact, Tummāņa land was in the Central Provinces, and has been repeatedly mentioned in the inscriptions of the Cēdi kings [Ep. Ind., Vol. I, pp. 34, 35, 40, 41, 47]. These Cēdi kings being rulers of the adjoining province, Dakṣinakōṣala, were from time to time at war with the kings of Orissa. One of them, Ratna Dēva, is said to have defeated even Cōraganga. Their position is further indicated by the statement that the fight took place in the groves on the banks of the Bhīmā river at the foot of the Vindhya kills. They, too, apparently invaded Orissa, as fighting on the bank of the sea is also mentioned.
The fight with the Yavanas, mentioned in verse 15, line 15, refers probably to some inroads of Ghiyag-ud-din 'Iwaz, the fourth Bengal ruler. Of him Tabakat-i-Naşiri says:
"In short, Ghiyag-ud-din 'Iwaz, the Khalj, was a monarch worthy, just, and benevolent. The parts around about the state of Lakhaṇawați, such as Jāj-nagar, the countries of Bang, Kāmrūd, and Tirhut, all sent tribute to him." (pp. 587-8).
Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din 'Iwaz was raised to the throne in about 608 A.H.; and the sending of tribute by Jāj-nagar is mentioned before the invasion of Bengal by I-yal-timish in 622 A.H. The invasion of Jāj nagar to gather tributes thus apparently fell between 608 and 622 A.H., or between A.D. 1211 and 1224. The Mahomedans make inroads very often when the ruler of the country had just ascended the throne, or the defences of the country had been neglected by some civil war. Ananga Bhima came to the throne in A.D. 1211-2, and the probability is that shortly after this time the Mahomedan inroad was made. This fixes
the anterior limit of the Câțeçvara inscription also. Several years would have elapsed between the minister Visnu's fight with the Yavanas and the finishing of the temple. So, Circa 1120 A.D. may be taken as the likely date of the composition of the temple inscription.
Dr. Hoernle published in Plate VI, one gold coin (No. 22), which has got the letters "Cri ana" and "sa" below them (Samvat), and two figures which I would read “24.” Dr. Hultzsch took “ to mean Anantavarmman; but as I pointed out in my letter to Dr. Hoernle, dated 10th July, 1898, "ana" is more likely the abbreviation of a name, as Anaŋga Bhima, than an abbreviation of a common title like Anantavarmman. If this view be correct, then No. 22 is applicable only to Ananga Bhima Dēva III, whose regnal years exceeded 24.
The temples of Mukhalingam or Çrikūrmaṁ do not unfortunately contain any direct inscriptions of this king, but there are some which contain references to him. In No. 307 of Çrikūrmaṁ, dated 1172 Çaka, Pratāpa-vira-Narasimha Dēva, son of Anaŋga Bhima Dēva, was ruling. In No. 349 of Çrikūrmaṁ, dated Çaka 1177, certain lands in Ippili which had been previously granted by the king Anaŋga Bhima, were regranted; No. 298 of Çrikūrmaṁ, dated Çaka 1205, mentions a gift of lamp by the wife of one Nrsimha Bhaṭṭōpādhyāya who was a contemporary of the king Anaŋga-Bhima; No. 296 of Çrīkūrmaṁ, dated Çaka 1205, mentions another grant of the same lady.
In the Mādaļā Pāñji, this king is said to have been the most powerful of the whole family, to have built (in one version finished) the temple of Jagannatha, to have surveyed the whole kingdom, and to have made numerous grants. None of these statements has as yet been corroborated by inscriptions.
VIII. Nrsimha Dēva I.
[ Çaka 1160 Çaka 1186.]
Only one inscription of his time has hitherto been found: