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4. The termination 72 iv becomes a yū before suffixes. Thus,

opetu karyū-m (for kariv + am), make ye for me, or make ye me. When suffixes are added to the root direct, in the second singular imperative, a v u is inserted (viii. i. 16). Thus, – at kar, make thou.

ty karu-m, make thou for me,

or make me. When suffixes are added to the 3rd person singular of the Future, indicative, the pa of the suffix is not elided. Thus, afi kari, he will make, mają kary-as, not afry kari-s, he will make for him. This does not hold with the suffixes of the second person. Thus, afre kari-y, he will make for thee, afra kari-we, he will make for you.

[When interrogative and other adverbial suffixes are added to the verb, they follow the pronominal suffix. E.g., h chu-m-ā, is there to me ? So Farya chu-m-āsano, &c.].

Some verbs are never used without pronominal suffixes of the dative case (viii. i. 45). These are,–

tsar, be inwardly wrathful.
** phòç, be inwardly wrathful.

phuh, be inwardly wrathful.
ng marts, be inwardly wrathful.
g wuts, be burnt.
formy phits, forget.

pja tyamb, look eagerly (viii. iii. 45). Moreover these verbs are always conjugated in the feminine, whether the subject is masculine or feminine. They are then used as impersonal verbs. Thus,

cią og tsarān chě-s, lit. there is inward anger to him. I.e.,

he is inwardly angry. Similarly, *179 phòçãn chě-s, gera 9 phuhān chè-s, hafa ¥ martsān chě-s. Again pria 4 tsarān chě-m, there is inward anger to me, I am inwardly angry, and so on. Again, g ą o wutsān chě-s, there is burning to him, i.e., he is burning (inwardly); fona o phitsān chě-s, there is forgetfulness to him, he forgets : raia w tyambān chě-s, he looks eagerly.

Sometimes full pronouns are used instead of suffixes (viü. i. 46). Thus,

afay pią of tamis tsarān chěh, there is inward anger to

him. The verb ur gatsh, be proper, be desirable, is also used with the dative (viii. i. 47). Thus,

afhę pia y fo atet tamis gatshān chuh zi parahặ, to him it is desirable that I should read. He thinks it proper that I should read. This is only in the third person. For the other persons always, and for the third person optionally, suffixes are used when they exist (viii. i. 48). Thus,

gia re gatshān chu-m, it is proper for me.
N a v gats hān chuh (no suffix), it is proper for us.
pia i gatshān chu-y, it is proper for thee.

la pa gatshān chu-we, it is proper for you.
Jeią gatshān chu-s, it is proper for him.

ią ve gatshān chu-kh, it is proper for them. This applies only to the present tense.

FIRST PERSON. The suffix of the Nominative Singular is as, which is not used with the Future tense (viii. i. 43). Thus,

atia karān chu-s, I make.
uge paku-s, I went.
matag karyő-n-as, I (as) was made (karyō) by him (an). I.e.,

he made me. But at kare, not atę kara-s, I shall make. Tę kara-s means ' I shall make for him’ (vide post, third person).

For other cases of the singular, the suflix is qų am (viii, i. 24). Thus,

urią ry karān chu-m, he makes me, or for me.
#719 fæi karān chi-m, they make me, or for me.

arų kæru-m, made by me, I made. There are no Plural Suffixes of the first person : the full pronouns are used instead (viii. i. 44). Thus,

avia v karān chuh asě, he makes us, and so on.
J. 1. 3

Second Person. For the Nominative Singular the suffix is qe akh, which is used as follows (viii. i. 36). Thus,

aria @ karān chhu-kh, thou makest.
acę kara-kh, thou wilt make.
arpta karaha-kh, (if) thou hadst made.
ugrą paku-kh, thou wentest.
achę kąru-m-akh, thou wast made by me, i.e., I made thee.

anafaa karyo-n-akh, thou wast made by him, i.e., he made thee. For the Accusative Singular, we ath is used in the first person singular and plural (viij. i. 37). Thus,

arą kara-th, I shall make thee.
arią karo-th (karav tath), we shall make thee.
atrą ry karān chu-s-ath, I make thee.

atra færu karān chi-th, we make thee. We cannot use this suffix with the third person. Thus, we cannot say afrą kari-th, he will make thee. We must use instead the suffix qay, which properly belongs to the Dative. Thus,

Er afro suh kari-y, he will make thee, or for thee.
farą ma tim karan-ay, they will make thee, or for thee.
E a q suh karān chu-y, he makes thee, or for thee.

fay arra fær tim karān chi-y, they make thee, or for thee. The same suffix (4 ath) is also used for the Agent Singular with the past tenses of transitive verbs. Thus,

aty kạru-th, made by thee, i.e., thou madest.

apie tą karyo-th, made by thee, i.e., thou madest. For the Dative Singular and also (when the verb is in the third person) for the Accusative Singular, the suffix 4 ay is used (viii. i. 40). Thus,–

4719 TL karān chu-y, he makes for thee, or thee.
atrą yrą karān chu-s-ay, I make for thee.
Fią furo karān chi-y, we make for thee.

quia fa karān chi-y, they make for thee, or thee.

#frą kari-y, he will make for thee, or thee. This form is liable to certain changes in the Aorist and Pluperfect tenses of verbs. These will be found duly explained in the proper place. With the Past Conditional this suffix may have the force of the Accusative.

For all cases of the Plural, the suffix is a 209. Thus, Nominative

mią fwa karān chi-we, you make. Accusative or Dative

avia a karān chu-wo, he makes you, or for you.
quia fwa karān chi-we, they make you, or for you.

*tia ha karān chu-8-we, I make you, or for you.
Agent -
ça kæru-we, made by you, you made.

Third Person.
There is no pronominal suffix of the Nominatire Singular or Plural.

The pronominal suffix of the Dative Singular is op as (viii. i. 33). Thus,– (masculine).

ara quę karān chu-s-as, I make for him.

tia rę karān chu-h-as (chu-kh + as, thou makest for him.

tra yg karān chu-s, he makes for him.
fra faz karān chi-s, we make for him. .
alla feat karān chi-wa-s, you make for him.
otra fæp karān chi-s, they make for him.

kara-s, I shall make for him.
So also for the feminine, arra 99% karān che-s-as.

[This suffix is also used for the Accusative, when the verb is in the third person. Thus, #Tią po karān chu-s, he makes him, 4714 færą karān chi-s, they make him].

For other oblique cases of the singular, gą an is used (viii. i. 34).
Thus,-
Accusative-

atia ya karān chu-h-an (chu-kh +an), you make him.
e11a Trą khyawan chu-h-an, you eat him.

as is however, used for gą an with the third person. Thus, aria y karān chu-s, not acią z karān chu-n, he makes him. Agent - .

masą kąru-n ( *karu +97 an), made by him, he made. For all cases of the plural, the suffix is gę akh (viii. i. 35). Thus,

atia karān chu-s-akh, I make for them, or I make them. *Tia e karān chu-kh, he makes for them, or makes them. are karu-kh, made by them, they made.

Moods and Tenses.
The Kāçmiri verb has four Moods, viz., the Indicative, the Impera-
tive, the Benedictive, and the Conditional.
The Indicative Mood is usually credited with eight tenses, viz., -

1. The Present.
2. The Imperfect.
3. The Future.
4. The Past.
5. The Aorist.
6. The pluperfect.
7. The Perfect.

8. The Periphrastic Pluperfect. Of these, Nos. 2, 7, and 8, are not discussed by Icvara-kaula in his grammar. I shall, however, give short notices of them for the sake of completeness. Nos. 1, 2, 7, and 8, are all periphrastic tenses, made up of Participles conjugated with auxiliary verbs. In No. 1, the Present participle is conjugated with the Present tense of the auxiliary verb, and in No. 2, it is conjugated with the Past tense of the same. In No. 7, the Past participle is conjugated with the Present tense of the same verb, and in No. 8, with its Past tense. The Imperative Mood has three tenses, viz.,

1. The Present.
2. The Future.

3. The Past.
The Present Imperative has two forms, a Simple, and a Modified.

The Benedictive Mood has one tense, which may be called the Future.

The Conditional Mood has two tenses, viz., --
1. A Present-Future. This is the same 2. A Past.

in form as the Future Indicative.

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