« السابقةمتابعة »
4. The termination
iv becomes a yū before suffixes. Thus,—
aų karyū-m (for kariv + am), make ye for me, or make ye me. When suffixes are added to the root direct, in the second singular imperative, au is inserted (viii. i. 16). Thus,—
kar, make thou.
karu-m, make thou for me, or make me.
When suffixes are added to the 3rd person singular of the Future, indicative, thea of the suffix is not elided. Thus, a kari, he will make, a kary-as, not af kari-s, he will make for him. not hold with the suffixes of the second person. Thus, af will make for thee, afa kari-wa, he will make for you.
This does kari-y, he
[When interrogative and other adverbial suffixes are added to the
verb, they follow the pronominal suffix. E.g.,
me? So chu-m-asan", &c.].
chu-m-ā, is there to
Some verbs are never used without pronominal suffixes of the dative case (viii. i. 45). These are,—
tsar, be inwardly wrathful.
phoç, be inwardly wrathful.
phuh, be inwardly wrathful.
marts, be inwardly wrathful.
gwuts, be burnt.
tyamb, look eagerly (viii. iii. 45).
Moreover these verbs are always conjugated in the feminine, whether the subject is masculine or feminine. They are then used as impersonal verbs. Thus,
qa aytsarān chě-s, lit. there is inward anger to him. I.e.,
he is inwardly angry.
Similarly, कशान् क्यम् phoçān chč-s, फुहान् व्यस् phuhān chě-s, मर्त्तान् ■ martsăn chě-s. Again aч tsarẫn chě-m, there is inward anger I am inwardly angry, and so on. Again, ga ẹ wutsān chě-s,
there is burning to him, i.e., he is burning (inwardly); f
phitsān che-s, there is forgetfulness to him, he forgets: 07 tyambān chě-s, he looks eagerly.
Sometimes full pronouns are used instead of suffixes (viii. i. 46).
afuq qcıq oq tamis tsarān chěh, there is inward anger to him.
gatsh, be proper, be desirable, is also used with the dative (viii. i. 47). Thus,
तमिस् गङ्गान् कुछ ज़ि परहो tamis gatshān chuh zi parahā, to him it is desirable that I should read. He thinks it proper that I should read. This is only in the third person. For the other persons always, and for the third person optionally, suffixes are used when they exist (viii. i. 48). Thus,
gatshân chu-m, it is proper for me.
gatshăn chuh (no suffix), it is proper for us.
gatshãn chu-kh, it is proper for them.
This applies only to the present tense.
The suffix of the Nominative Singular is as, which is not used with the Future tense (viii. i. 43). Thus,—
करान् दुस् karān chu-s, I make.
da paku-s, I went.
afa karyo-n-as, I (as) was made (karyo) by him (an). I.e., he made me.
kare, not kara-s, I shall make. kara-s means 'I
shall make for him' (vide post, third person).
For other cases of the singular, the suffix is am (viii, i. 24). Thus,
ua ga karān chu-m, he makes me, or for me.
a faЯ karān chi-m, they make me, or for me.
karu-m, made by me, I made.
There are no Plural Suffixes of the first person: the full pronouns are used instead (viii. i. 44). Thus,
aua ga qa karān chuh asẽ, he makes us, and so on.
J. I. 3
For the Nominative Singular the suffix isakh, which is used as
follows (viii. i. 36). Thus,
aga karẫn chhu-kh, thou makest.
kara-kh, thou wilt make.
karaha-kh, (if) thou hadst made.
da paku-kh, thou wentest.
kar"-m-akh, thou wast made by me, i.e., I made thee.
aifa karyō-n-akh, thou wast made by him, i.e., he made thee. For the Accusative Singular, ath is used in the first person singular and plural (viij. i. 37). Thus,
kara-th, I shall make thee.
a karō-th (karav+ath), we shall make thee.
TCT THų karān chu-s-ath, I make thee.
aa faa karan chi-th, we make thee.
We cannot use this suffix with the third person. Thus, we cannot say af kari-th, he will make thee. We must use instead the suffix ay, which properly belongs to the Dative. Thus,
afa suh kari-y, he will make thee, or for thee. fatim karan-ay, they will make thee, or for thee.
suh karan chu-y, he makes thee, or for thee.
faq acıa fey tim karān chi-y, they make thee, or for thee.
The same suffix (ath) is also used for the Agent Singular with the past tenses of transitive verbs. Thus,
karu-th, made by thee, i.e., thou madest.
aafa karyō-th, made by thee, i.e., thou madest.
For the Dative Singular and also (when the verb is in the third person) for the Accusative Singular, the suffix
ay is used (viii. i. 40).
Ta Ta karān chu-y, he makes for thee, or thee.
karan chu-s-ay, I make for thee.
af karan chi-y, we make for thee.
karān chi-y, they make for thee, or thee.
af kari-y, he will make for thee, or thee.
This form is liable to certain changes in the Aorist and Pluperfect tenses of verbs. These will be found duly explained in the proper With the Past Conditional this suffix may have the force of the
For all cases of the Plural, the suffix is wa. Thus,Nominative
ata fua karān chi-wa, you make.
Accusative or Dative
aua ga karān chu-wa, he makes you, or for you.
af karān chi-wa, they make you, or for you.
a ga karān chu-s-wa, I make you, or for you.
kar"-we, made by you, you made.
There is no pronominal suffix of the Nominative Singular or Plural. The pronominal suffix of the Dative Singular is as (viii. i. 33). Thus, (masculine).
aa gaa karān chu-s-as, I make for him.
alaga karān chu-h-as (chu-kh + as, thou makest for him.
a karān chu-s, he makes for him.
fakaran chi-s, we make for him.
a fog karān chi-wa-s, you make for him. aa fag karān chi-s, they make for him.
kara-s, I shall make for him.
So also for the feminine, a
[This suffix is also used for the Accusative, when the verb is in the third person. Thus, a karān chu-s, he makes him, aciq fa karān chi-s, they make him].
For other oblique cases of the singular, an is used (viii. i. 34). Thus,
Mua ga karān chu-h-an (chu-kh+an), you make him.
Q¶¶ Ta khyawẫn chu-h-an, you eat him.
as is however, used for an with the third person. Thus, कर।न् दुस् karān chu-s, not करान् कुन् karān chu-n, he makes him.
◄◄ą kạru-n (da kạru +◄◄ an), made by him, he made. For all cases of the plural, the suffix isakh (viii. i. 35). Thus,
A karān chu-s-akh, I make for them, or I make them. a karan chu-kh, he makes for them, or makes them. karu-kh, made by them, they made.
Moods and Tenses.
The Kaçmiri verb has four Moods, viz., the Indicative, the Imperative, the Benedictive, and the Conditional.
The Indicative Mood is usually credited with eight tenses, viz.,—
Of these, Nos. 2, 7, and 8, are not discussed by Ïçvara-kaula in his grammar. I shall, however, give short notices of them for the sake of completeness. Nos. 1, 2, 7, and 8, are all periphrastic tenses, made up of Participles conjugated with auxiliary verbs. In No. 1, the Present participle is conjugated with the Present tense of the auxiliary verb, and in No. 2, it is conjugated with the Past tense of the same. In No. 7, the Past participle is conjugated with the Present tense of the same verb, and in No. 8, with its Past tense.
The Imperative Mood has three tenses, viz.,
The Present Imperative has two forms, a Simple, and a Modified. The Benedictive Mood has one tense, which may be called the Future.
The Conditional Mood has two tenses, viz.,
A Present-Future. This is the same
in form as the Future Indicative.
2. A Past.