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The only remaining dagobahs of which I think it necessary to speak particularly, are the Jaitawanarámaya and the Sankarámaya, both of them lying to the north of the ancient city, at a considerable distance from the others. The sketch opposite represents the Jaitawanarámaya in its present condition. In the Mahawanso it is styled the Jetawanno dagobah, which as the shorter name, although it is now better known by the former, I shall adopt. The Jetawanno was commenced by Mahasen as a measure of retribution to the orthodox for the destruction which he had before caused. It was originally three hundred and fifteen feet high, and is still upwards of two hundred and forty. It is an enormous solid mass of masonry, and some idea of its size may be obtained by reflecting that its cubic contents are upwards of 456,000 yards. Yet so inferior was the Jetawanno considered when compared with the more imposing buildings at Anuradhapura, that the Singhalese historian passes it over with two slight notices, each of a single line's length. The Jetawanno does not appear ever to have attained any considerable distinction either as the scene of any remarkable events, or as a considerable resort of the Buddhistic priesthood. The erections in its neighbourhood would appear to have been at one time highly ornamented from the profusion of carved stones which lie scattered in its vicinity. A massive square pillar lies by the side of the path at some distance from the dagobah, which on being measured, proved to be twenty-six feet long and a yard square, being cut out of a single block of granite. It must be borne in mind that although composed of brick, these dagobahs were originally coated with a white cement, which, when polished, as they were, would give them all the appearance of marble. There can be little doubt that originally they would have a very imposing effect, and that especially as seen from a distance they must have added great beauty and grandeur to the distant view of Anuradhapura.
Of the present condition of the Lankarámaya the accompanying sketch may afford some idea. It was erected by the enthusiastic and wavering Mahasen between the years 276 and 302 of our era. There can be little doubt that it was modelled on the plan of the Thupharamaya, but although apparently built of more durable materials, it does not at all approach the original in the proportions of its columns or the excellence of its carvings. The Lankarámaya stands, like all the other
dagobahs, on an elevated platform, paved with granite slabs, and immediately in front of it stands a stone altar about five feet high, which there can be little doubt was intended for the reception of the offerings of the faithful. The Lankarámaya stands between the Thupharamaya and the Jaitawanarámaya, a little to the eastward of both-the ruins of a priest's residence are in its immediate vicinity, but of a character so common as not to need any particular remarks.
Other dagobahs there are in the vicinity of Anuradhapura, but greatly inferior in size to those which I have endeavoured to describe. The Mirisiwellia, the Sailya Chaitya and the Ellala Dagobah, with many others of less note, are but shapeless heaps of ruins overgrown with jungle, with but a few pillars, or carved stones to mark their former importance. As I have said before, one of the most extraordinary characteristics of the ruins of the city is the immense number of stone pillars, generally square, which present themselves in every direction in which the visitor may turn his steps. These, with the large masses of the remaining dagobahs, and the immense quantity of carved stones that lie about the paths in all directions, will convince the most sceptical that he is treading on the ruins of a once great and populous city, and that those who inhabited it were to a very considerable extent civilized and refined. One peculiarity, if at all observant, he cannot fail to notice, the great superiority of the more ancient to the more modern structures—a superiority as decided and unquestionable as the greater excellence of Grecian sculpture in beauty and sublimity to the massive but rude masses of Egyptian architecture.
In conclusion, let it be borne in mind that great as must have been the expenditure of labour and power to erect the Lowa Maha Paya, or the Ruanwelle, there are monuments of ancient Lanka and its people still more demonstrative of their former greatness. I refer to the embankments of the various tanks scattered in such profusion over the north of the island, and especially in the immediate vicinity of Anuradhapura. To these I would point as the most conclusive evidences of what the power of the Singhalese monarchs once was, and I can only regret that my own observations have been too limited to allow of my entering upon the subject in a manner likely to be satisfactory either to my readers or myself.
Notes of an Excursion to the Pindree Glacier, in September 1846.
September 10th.-From Almorah to Sutralee, 13 or 14 miles, which Occupied us (my companion, Captain Hampton, 31st Regt. N. I.) from 6 till 11 A. M. our progress at first being much impeded by a heavy fall of rain, the termination as we hoped, of the season, but which in fact proved to be only a shadow of what was in store for us. The road lies over the mountain called Kaleemuth, 6,300 feet high, and so called, the Almorah people say, from a coarse kind of black lead which abounds there: the summit is of mica slate and gneiss, in horizontal strata. 2,300 feet below, to the west, is Hawulbagh, now famous like Almorah and Bheemtal, for its thriving plantations of tea; the visiter however, will be disappointed who expects anything picturesque in this cultivation, any more than in the vineyards of France; the shrubs being generally under four feet high, and anything but elegant in form; the tea is made in spring; the plant flowers here at that season, and notwithstanding the extreme plucking it undergoes, produces a profusion of seed in October and November. It may be satisfactory to Drs. Royle and Falconer to know that even at Almorah the plantations suffered not the trace of injury from the snow storms of Jan. 26, and Feb. 2. 1847, the heaviest known to the oldest inhabitant of Keemaoon, when about 2 feet fell at Almorah, and lay for many days. Hawulbagh takes its name, "The garden of mist," from the heavy clouds which rest over it almost every morning during the cold season, at about 4500 feet elevation; the Kosilla runs about 200 feet below the station, which has a greater extent of level ground than any other in the N. W. mountains. The river is invariably known to the mountaineers as the Kosee, which H. H. Wilson derives from the Sanscrit Kausika, a sheathe, probably in allusion to its generally deep and narrow glen; the Hindustani name Kosilla, may be from the Sanscrit Kausulya, "good fortune." It has become an axiom in the Geography of the N. W. Himalaya, that the Giree is the only river which does not rise in the snowy range: but the assertion is equally true of the Kosilla, and western Ramgunga of Kumaoon (the latter known also as the Ruput in Gurhwal); while the Surjoo and eastern
Ramgunga originate in branches of the snowy range which for many months in each year are completely denuded of snow.
Opposite Hawulbagh, at Kutarmul, there is a very large temple dedicated to Aditya, the sun; it is surrounded by a multitude of smaller ones, but all is now forsaken, the main pile having been so shaken by earthquakes as to be dangerous. Many of the large terminal ornamental "Turk's cap" stones have been turned half round. The view from the summit of Kaleemuth is very fine and extensive; to the east, are the dark ranges of Binsur and Jugesur; to the south and south-west the lofty Ghagur completely excludes Kumaoon from any view of the plains; from north-east to north-west extend the snowy range, of which the view given in Dr. Royle's illustrations was taken from this point. As might be expected it fails in conveying any just idea of the grandeur of the scene, and is moreover not very correct, most of the groups and peaks being misnamed. What is called the Kedarnath cluster, is really the bastioned mass of Budreenath; his "Juwahir cluster" is properly named "Trisool;" and the peak called Nundadevi, is in fact one to the east of Pindree, commonly known to Europeans in Kumaoon as Nundakot, No. XV. of the map. The true Nundadevi, most conspicuous in nature, was perhaps clouded when the artist took his view, being either suppressed, or very imperfectly delineated by the peak marked XIII. which is really the eastern shoulder of the Trisool.
Looking at the snowy range from this and similar points, it appears a matter of no difficulty to reach it; an impression produced by the almost total suppression in the view, of the great spurs and secondary ranges sent off to the south and south-west from the main range; all these, being seen in the direction of their length, present comparatively small points; and it seems to be for this reason that the mountains as seen from Seharunpoor, Umballah, &c. have the appearance of three or four long ranges, successively rising; but the moment we get amongst them this apparent regularity is lost, and the mountains appear to branch in every direction.
In common with the vicinity of Almorah in general, Kaleemuth is too well grazed by cattle to afford much room for vegetation. In the spring a shrubby Dipsacus, with lilac blossoms, is common; and in autumn the warmer declivities abound with the beautiful Osbeckia stellata, the Kookurmakree of the natives. The Scilla indica, Anquilla
ria indica, Curculigo orchioides, and Fritillaria Thomsoniana, all reach up to this point, and are abundant.
Hence, the route follows the neck which joins Kaleemuth with Binsur; about two miles on, a Cairn, called "Kutputiya," occurs on the left hand; these heaps of stones are raised where three ways meet, many of the people considering it meritorious to add a stone; a custom well known to this day amongst the Celtic tribes of western Europe. Soon after passing the Cairn, the road quits the Binsur route, and after passing Jak village, crosses by a rocky ascent the western spur of Binsur, called Bhynsooree Cheena; the northern aspect of this is covered with pretty thick woods of Rhododendron, Andromeda, &c. through which we descended to a glen, extensively cultivated, where a stream from Binsur joins the Takoola from Gunnanath. The united stream is a rapid burn, which joins the Kosilla above Hawulbagh our route lay sometimes on one, sometimes on the other bank, and not unfrequently in the stream itself. Rice is abundantly produced along the banks, and the Kodah on the higher grounds. This is a late crop, and suffers much from the bears; it is now infested by a considerable number of locusts, which we found daily hence to the
Sutralee is the name of a district belonging to the astrologers of Almorah; and in the midst of abundance, the traveller finds himself like Sancho Panza, in danger of starving; for these "gods of the earth" are infinitely more liberal with their horoscopes and predictions of good weather and fortune than with their supplies of grass, ghee, and flour. We encamped in a confined but pretty spot, surrounded by woody spurs from Binsur and Gunnanath, neither of which is visible; a rivulet from the former has cut a deep perpendicular gorge in the rock, on the brink of which are some old temples dedicated to Umba Debee, from whom the place is called Umkholee. A
* One is constantly struck in India with the identity of the customs and ideas of its population with those of Europe, ancient and modern. A few years since at the Jeypoor Durbar, the sitting was prolonged to so late an hour that it became necessary to introduce lights, on which all the chiefs got up and saluted each other, as if they had met for the first time in the morning. One of them told me it was a common custom Thirlwall incidentally mentions the very same as having been usual amongst the ancient Greeks.