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Phrygius, cap. 39, 174, ed. Delph. 1702, although it is corroborated by the more classical names of Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Strabo. Joseph of Exeter in his poem De bello Trojano, composed in the twelfth century, thus versifies Dares:
Interea questique diu, bellumque perosi,
In fœdus coiere Phryges; juratur in usum
Polydamante Dolon, patriæque in damna ruentis
Impius et tantis Æneas consonus ausis.—lib. vi. v. 705.
The immediate source, however, made use of by the Scotish poet, may have been the popular Latin romance of Guido de Colonna, compiled in the thirteenth century, which subsequently was translated by Lydgate into English verse.
Ibid. 1. 11. Ticius to Tuskan [turnes,] & teldes bigynnes.
Unless Ticius is here a mistake altogether for Antenor, the name may possibly have been derived from Titus Tatius, king of the Sabines, and afterwards the colleague of Romulus at Rome. The word supplied is obvious, and rendered certain by several other passages, but I shall only quote one,
In to Tuskane he tournez, whenne thus well tymede,
Ibid. 1. 13. Felix Brutus.
Morte Arthur, f. 80o.
This surname seems to be an invention of the writer for the sake of alliteration. I have not met with it elsewhere.
P. 4, 1. 31. As tit as I in toun herde.
A phrase by no means unusual. Compare ll. 614, 1049. We may hence reject the emendation of Chalmers, in reading roun for toun in the first stanza of Sir Tristrem. See Works of Sir David Lyndsay, vol. i. p. 128, 8vo, 1806.
Ibid. 1. 37. This kyng lay at Camylot, etc.
In Malory's Morte d' Arthur, compiled in 1469, Camalot is expressly declared to be the same as Winchester, b. 12, ch. x. vol. ii. p. 193; but this is contradicted
by the Roman de Lancelot, vol. iii, f. cxliv, 4to, 1513, where the two cities are clearly distinguished from each other. Ritson supposes it may have been CaerWent in Monmouthshire, and afterwards confounded with Caer-Wynt or Winchester; Life of Arthur, p. 82. But popular tradition here seems the best guide, which assigned the site of Camalot to the ruins of a castle on a hill, near the church of South Cadbury, in Somersetshire. See Leland's Itin. ii. 75, and Collectan. v. 28. In the Roman de Tristan we read, "Le roy Artus y sejournoit souvent, pour ce que la cité estoit aisée de toutes choses qu'il conuenoit à corps de homme aysier." vol. 1, f. xxxvii. fol. 1520. So also the author of the Roman du St. Graal, 2nd part, in speaking of another Camylot, the residence of the mother of Perceval, says, "Seigneurs, ne cuydez pas que ce soit de celluy Kamelot dont ces jougleurs vont chantant la chanson, ou le roy Artus tenoit si souvent sa court. Cestuy Kamelot, que fut à la vefue dame, est assyz au plus beau chef, et en la plus belle isle, et en la plus sauvaige de Galles, prez de la mer vers occident. Et l'autre Kamelot est a l'entrée du royaulme de Logres, qui est peuplé de gens, et est assiz au chef de la terre au roy Artus, pour ce que il tient à toutes les terres qui de celle part marchissoyent à la sienne." f. clxxxvii, 4to, 1516. See a passage likewise in the Roman de Lancelot, vol. i, f. lxxxvi, and Southey's note on Morte d'Arthur, ii. 487.
Ibid. 1. 40. The revels at Christmas are more than once described with a zest, which would induce us to believe that the feasting and jollities of that season were kept up in the fourteenth century in Scotland in a manner not to be excelled by English pageantry. Besides the tourney, or amicable joust, we have carols, dancing, shouts of Noel, gifts decided by lot, interludes, songs, and other amusements. See 11. 472, 983, 1007, 1026, 1654. With regard to carols and Noel, Sandys's work on the subject may be consulted, 8vo, London, 1833. In the Roman de Lancelot, vol. i. f. xxxvi, it is stated, that Arthur was accustomed to hold a court and wear his crown five times in the year; namely, at Easter, Ascension-day, Pentecost, All Saints, and Noel. Of these the feast at Easter was more honoured, but that of Pentecost the most joyous. See some lines describing a court plenière at Christmas, in the Lai du Conseil, p. 85, of Lais Inedits, by Fr. Michel, 8vo, Paris, 1836. On the popular Christmas play, as at present preserved in various parts of Scotland and England, see Davies Gilbert's Christmas Carols, 8vo, 1823, pref. p. iv; Mactaggart's Scotish Gallovidian Encyclopedia, (a work but little known, and very curious), 8vo, London, 1824, in v. Yule-boys; Gentleman's Magazine, 1850, parti. p.505; Hone's Every-day Book, vol. ii. p. 18, 8vo, 1831; and Sandys's Carols, pp. 110, 174. This play has been separately printed, but made up, without judgement, from various sources, 8vo, Portsmouth, 1836.
P. 6, 1. 81. The comlokest to descrye,
Ther glent with yzen gray.
The beauty of Queen Guenever is a constant theme with the old romancers, and appears to rest on historical tradition. In the Welsh version of the romance of Ywaine and Gawaine, (recently edited with so much taste by Lady Charlotte Guest as Part I. of the Mabinogion,) the expression "more lovely than Gwenhwyvar" occurs, p. 42, (see l. 945 of the present poem), and the editor remarks, that this was the highest compliment it was possible to pay, since Gwenhwyvar is celebrated in the Triads as one of the three fair ladies of Arthur's court, p. 102.
So also in the Latin Chronicle of Geoffrey, lib. ix. cap. 9, the queen is equally praised for her beauty and courteous manners, and this is repeated by Wace and his translators or imitators. But the most naïve and elaborate personal description of her appearance, whilst yet at the court of Leodagan her father, is given in the very rare Roman de Merlin, vol. i. f. cxxxvii, in these words:-" Ny oncques en Bretaigne n'en nasquit point de plus belle pour lors. Son visaige estoit cler et luysant, et bien coulouré blanc et vermeil; si belle estoit que Nature avoit mis en elle toute son estudié, qu'il ne luy en failloit ne plus ne moins. Elle estoit haulte et droicte, et bien polie, le corps long, et gresle par les flans, les hanches basses, vestue d'abiz qui moult bien luy advenoient; les bras avoit gros et longs, les piedz plains et voultiz, les mains grassetes, blanches comme neige. Si luy commençoient encores à croistre les mamelles dures, blanches, et rondes comme pommettes; ne fut trop grasse ne trop maigre." etc. See also another passage quoted by Southey in his Notes on Morte d'Arthur, vol. ii. p. 462. It need only be remarked in addition, that the "yzen gray," des yeux vaires, were considered in the times of romance as the undoubted characteristic of beauty. See examples (out of many) in the Erle of Tolous, ap. Ritson, Metr. Rom. iii. 107. Launfal, ib. i. 205. Thomas of Ersyldoune, ap. Laing, Pop. Poetr. 1. 89; and Syre Gawene and the Carle of Carelyle, in the present volume, p. 197, 1. 365.
Ibid. 1. 90. And also another maner meued him eke
That he thurz nobelay had nomen, he wolde neuer ete.
This is borrowed by the author immediately from the Roman de Perceval, fol. lxxviii.—" Keux, faict le Roy, ne vous hastez, car vous scavez long temps y a que quant court planière ay tenue, que jamais ne voullus menger ains que nouvelles ou merveilles ne fussent devers moy venues; et encores ne veuil coustume laisser ne abollir." So also in the Roman de Lancelot, vol. iii. f. lxxxii; and Roman de Merlin, vol. ii. f. lvi", which narrates the establishment of this custom of Arthur, and is
probably the authority whence the other romances borrowed. Cf. Malory's Morte d'Arthur, ii. 203, 462. The same usage appears in the earlier German romancewriters, who, in truth, only translate the metrical French authorities. Consult Wigalois, p. 12, 12mo, Berlin, 1819; and the notes of the editor Benecke, p. 436.
P. 7. 1. 110. And Agrauayn a la dure mayn.
One of the brothers of Gawayne, by Belisent, half-sister of Arthur. I know not whence the author of the poem derived the epithet of à la dure main, which is never applied to him in the romances. His constant appellation there is l'Orgueilleux. His character is drawn in a few words in the Roman de Lancelot, ii. f. lxix.—“ Il fut sans pitié et sans amour, ne il n'eut oncques bonne grace fors que de chevalerie, et de beaulté, et la langue eut à delivré." There is an amusing episode of his haughty behaviour in Merlin, ii. f. lxxxvi, at which his father, old king Lot, is so enraged, that he cries out to Gawayne to slay him. His death, however, was reserved for Sir Launcelot, after the latter had been surprised by him in queen Guenever's chamber. Morte d'Arthur, ii. 395.
Ibid. 1. 112. Bischop Bawdewyn.
This personage, who figures also in Sir Gawene and the Carle of Carelyle, and in The Turke and Gowin, occurs nowhere in the early French metrical and prose romances; and his name seems to have been substituted by the English or Scotish poets in the fourteenth century, for that of Bishop Brice or Dubricius. There was an Archbishop of Canterbury named Baldwin, who held the See from 1184 to 1191, from whom the name may have been taken.
Ibid. 1. 113. Yuan, Yryn son.
Is the celebrated Ywain or Owain, sometimes surnamed Le Grand, son of Urien king of Moray, according to Geoffrey, or of Rheged, according to the Welsh authorities. His exploits were celebrated in French verse by Chrestien de Troyes, and thence translated into the German, Icelandic, Welsh, and English languages, for which consult Benecke's edition of Iwein der Riter mit dem Lewen, 8vo, Berlin, 1827; Von der Hagen's Grundriss zur Geschichte der Deutschen Poesie, 8vo, Berlin, 1812, p. 118; Ritson's Metrical Romances, vol. i. and Notes, vol. iii. 8vo, 1802; and Lady C. Guest's Mabinogion, part i, 8vo, 1838. He must not be confounded (as Ritson has done) with Ywain l'Avoultre, a base son of Urien by his seneschal's wife, who was killed by Gawayne without knowing him, Roman de Lancelot, iii. f. cxvii. There
are also others of this name mentioned in the Roman de Merlin, i. f. ccviii3, and in the Roman d'Erec et d'Enide. Cf. Arthour and Merlin, p. 306, 4to, 1838. The name of this hero of the Round Table, somewhat disguised, again occurs in 1. 551 of the present poem; in the Awntyrs of Arthure, st. li. l. 4; and Golagros and Gawane, 1. 662.
P. 22, 1. 551. Aywan, and Errik, and other ful mony,
Sir Doddinaual de [le] Sauage, the duk of Clarence,
Sir Boos, and Sir Byduer, big men bothe,
And mony other menskful, with Mador de la Port.
Of Aywan or Ywain I have already spoken. The second on the list is Erec, son of king Lac, of whom the romance of Erec et d'Enide, by Chrestien de Troyes, exists in MS. Bibl. du Roi, No. 74984. The third is Dodinel le Sauvage, son of Belinans, king of Estrangegorre, by a daughter of king Matheu "de l'isle perdu." Cestuy Dodinel," says the Roman de Merlin, "fut surnommé Sauvaige, pource qu'il ne bougeoit des forestz et des bois, à chasser bestes sauvaiges," i. f. cxlviii. He is delivered by Gawayne out of prison in the Roman de Perceval, f. cxciib. The fourth, here named by his title of Duke of Clarence, was Galachin, son of Neutres, king of Garlot, by a sister of Arthur, and cousin of Dodinal. The duchy was given to him by Arthur, after his marriage with Guenever. The author of Merlin says of him, "Cest enfant fut le meilleur chevalier de deux centz cinquante chevaliers qui furent de la Table Ronde,” i. f. cxib. His exploits in the Val sans retour are narrated in the Roman de Lancelot, i. f. cxcb. The fifth on the list is the redoubtable son of king Ban of Benoit, whose amours with queen Guenever have made him more conspicuous even than his valor. The readers of his romance, or of Malory's Morte d'Arthur, need not be reminded that he became the destroyer, mediately or immediately, of Gawayne and his brothers. Lyonel de Gauves or Gannes, son of king Boort, was the cousin of Lancelot, and received the kingdom of Gaul from his hand. In the Roman de Lancelot, i. f. lxxxvi, it is said of him, "Et le varlet avoit à nom Lyonnel pource que une grande merveille advint à son naistre. Car sy tost comme il yssit du ventre Helayne, sa mere, l'en trouva au meillieu de son pis une tasche vermeille en forme de lyon, et avoit l'enfant embrassé parmy le col, ainsi comme pour l'estrangler." He is stated to have been killed in a battle against the sons of Mordred, and buried at Winchester. Sir Lucan was Arthur's butler, and died with the king in the fatal engagement with Mordred. Sir Boort or Bors de Gauves or Gannes, was brother of Lyonel, and inherited the territories of king Claudas. Sir