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defenceless and could be plundered. Should he fail, however, he could then turn on Muhammad Khan in the direction of Dhár. Mulhár,

persuaded by Yar Muhammad went to Ujain, and set fire to two or three houses in Rakábganj. The naib (Mukim Khán) came out to meet the Mahrattas, and after some fighting they made off in the direction of Muhammad Khán. A story that they had plundered some merchants near the town of Andru* in the ta’luka of Nand Lal Sandloit was untrue.

Meanwhile Muhammad Khán had reached Dhár on the 17th Sha’bán, 1113 H. (14th Feb. 1731). From early morning of the 22nd (19th Feb. 1731) many Mahrattas appeared in the vicinity. The Mubainmadans killed several, cut off their heads and brought in their horses. In the afternoon the contest ceased. Next morning Holkar with his army appeared in sight, and made a first attack on Sulaimán Khán who commanded three thousand horse. The attack was repelled. Then Maʼzum Khán with 1000 horse on the right, and Muhammad 'Umr Khán, faujdar of Mándú, on the left, hastened forward ; and Muhammad Khán himself advancing quickly, the enemy gave way.

Several leaders and some fifty troopers were left on the field, besides those wounded. The Muhammadan loss was twelve killed. Pursuit was made for two kos, and they returned to their tents when one quarter of the night was past. These contests went on for about ten days to the end of Sha’bán (26th Feb. 1731).

For some time no word had been heard of Nizam-ul Mulk's departure from Burhanpur. $ At length on the 28th Sha'bán (25th Feb. 1731), a letter was received, and Muhammad Khan determined to set out for the Narbada. He had also been delayed by the non-arrival of Dáler Khán. The latter now wrote that Yár Muhammad Khán had gone off to his home, taking with him his friends and some men. Dáler Khán announced his own intention of joining if he were waited for. Accordingly on the 28th he arrived, and on the 29th Sha’bán (26th Feb. 1731), they set out for the Narbada by double marches. Other reasons for the delay may have been, that Muhammad Khan was not able to move without reinforcements, or that, to save his dignity, he did not wish to move more rapidly than he could help to the place of rendezvous with Nizam-ul Mulk. The Mahrattas had now been expelled for a time from Ujain, Mandeshwar, Dhár and Depálpur, and their new forts on the Narbada had been levelled.

A second letter came now from Nizam-ul Mulk referring to his having crossed the river at Fardánpur on the 20th Jamadi II, 11-13 H. (20th Dec. 1730), to suppress the rebellion in Zila' Laklána.* He reports having heard that Báji Ráo had reached Sultánpurf and Nandurbárf on his way to Gujrát. It was thought that as Kanhaya Bánd and Pílá Gáekwâr were opposed to him about the chauth of that Subah, he must intend to eject them; and being taken up with fighting among themselves, they would not find the time to invade Málwá. Spies had, however, since brought intelligence that Báji Ráo's brother was marching by way of Navápurah to Surat and Gujrat ; meanwhile Báji Ráo, leaving Sultánpur and Nandurbár, would make for Málwá viâ Ghargún.|| His brother would then come through Dohad to join him, and they would unite to expel the thánas of Kanhaya Ji and Pilá Gáekwár from Málwá. Kanbaya Názar, Pilá Gáekwár and Udá Puņwár had opened negotiations with Nizám-ul Mulk, and he advises Muhammad Khán also to receive their overtures and try to bring them over.

* Query. The same as Indúr.

to Or perhaps Manilloi--See No. 7 of Index to Vol. III, of Aitchison's Treatios, ed. 1876.

On the north bank of the Tápti, 132 miles S. E. from Ujain. Thornton, 141. § About 28 milcs S. W. of Ujain,

On the 20th Rajab (18th Jan, 1731), Nizam-ul-Mulk wrote again from Gálnah** that as soon as Muhammad Khan's letter was received on the 17th Rajab (15th Jan. 1731), he had started for Burhanpur. He trusted that Muhammad Khan would make no delay, so that they might meet and discuss plans together, for Daulat ham z itifák kchezad(Union is strength). Another letter tells Muhammad Khán that Rájah Abhai Singh was about to make peace with Báji Ráo. Pilá Gáekwár, Kantá Bánd, Udá Jí Puņwár and Anand Ráo had, however, entered into the closest relations with Nizam-ul-Mulk : and acting with them was Tirnek Ráo Pahárya, son of Khandu Jí, who had lately succeeded his father. The troops of these allies might amount to some twenty thousand horse. Chimna, brother of Bájí Ráo, had 9000 horse, and would advance by the pass of Nánábyári, which is towards Gujrát. Báji Ráo was reported to have 3000 or 4000 horse. Holkar with some 3000 men had gone towards Málwá.

On Friday the 1st Sha’bán 1143 H. (29th Jan. 1731), Nizam-ul-Mulk, who was near Dhámanganw,tt acknowledged the receipt of Muhammad Khán's letter reporting his arrival at Sádhaurah. As Dhámanganw was

* Or Laklába.

+ About 5 miles from the north bank of the Tápti, and 30 miles S. of the Narbada, and 102 miles W. of Burhanpúr.

About 10 miles S. of the Tápti and 30 miles S. W. of Sultánpur.

§ About 12 miles S. of the Tápti, 86 miles S. W. of Nandurbár and 165 miles W. of Burhánpúr.

|| On the Kundi river, 25 miles S. of the Narbada and about 55 miles N. W. of Burhanpur.

1 On the boundary of Málwá and Gujrát, 100 miles W. of Ujain. Thornton 284.

** About 120 miles S. W. of Burhánpúr, 165 miles N. E. of Bombay, in the Khándesh District. Thornton, 433.

ott About 70 miles S. W. of Burhánpúr.

counted as thirty kos from Burhanpur, Nizám-ul-Mulk hoped soon to reach the Narbada.

He does not appear to have hastened himself much, for it was not till Sunday, the 17th Sha'bán (14th Feb. 1731), that leaving behind his large guns, artillery and heavy equipage he started from Burhanpur. On the 22nd (19th Feb. 1731), he was at Sálganw, a distance of twenty-two kos from Burhanpur, and intended to march via Ghargún to the Narbada. Mulammad Khán was recommended to come by the pass (lcanal ?) of Naubahra, which was the usual route. On Saturday the 23rd, Nizam-ul-Mulk was within twenty los of the ferry of Akbarpur* on the Narbada, the advanced tents would go on next day, and on the 25th (22nd Feb. 1731), he hoped to reach Akbarpur. The darogha, however, came back and reported that Muhammad Khán was still above the gháts. Although professing to be burning for an interview, Nizam-ul-Mulk thought that his dignity required him to divide the remaining distance into two marches. Muhammad Khán, in answer to one of the letters, had complained that the allies Kanhaya Jí, Chimná Ji and others had sent him no men.

Nizamul-Mulk reassures him by pointing out that they were far away near Mándavit in the zila of Surat. Some further time was occupied by Nizam-ul-Mulk going off to take a fort, and the desired interview did not take place till some time afterwards. We have no report of what took place, further than that the two Subahdars agreed to act in concert to put down the Mahrattas. Muhammad Khán in his report to the Emperor is loud in his praises of Nizám-ul-Mulk as an obedient and dutiful subject of the State. Muhammad Khán finally left Akbarpur on the 1st Shawwal 1143 H. (29th March, 1731).

Nizam-ul-Mulk went from Akbarpur to reduce the forts of Rájaur and Nadáwáli, the residence of Mohan Singh on the other side of the ferry. By the 4th Shawwal (1st April, 1731), the besieged were suing for terms, the fort was to be evacuated and made over to Nizam-ul-Mulk's envoys. This noble was, however, threatened by a new danger, which hastened his departure from that part of the country. He heard that Báji Ráo leaving the Narbada had gone towards Surat and Nurpurah. This made it necessary for him, he said, to provide without losing a moment, for the safety of Aurangábád and other parganahs and important forts. His own spies confirmed the news, saying, that they had left during the night, when it was said that Báji Ráo would march next day. Chimná Jí Dámodar having been released, had reached Dobhoi, twenty miles south-east of Baroda ; and he had written to his son that Báji Ráo had moved and gone towards the Ghát of Nánabyári.

* About 35 miles S. of Indúr and 40 miles S. E, of Dhár. it On the Tápti about 32 miles east of Surát.

The explanation of Nizam-ul-Mulk's anxiety and haste would appear to be that he had heard of the defeat, on the 1st April 1731, between Baroda and Dobhoi in Gujrát, of his allies, Pílájí Gáekwar and others. Udá Jí and Chimná Jí Pandit were taken prisoners. * This defeat rendered futile all the negociations for a general alliance between the two leaders, Muhammad Khan and Nizam-ul-Mulk. But Muhammad Khán was benefited indirectly, for Nizam-ul-Mulk was forced to take the field openly against Báji Ráo, thus for one season averting from Málwá thc full force of the Mahratta depredations. Báji Ráo was forced to remain in the Dakhin on the defensive.

Grant Dufft speaks of no open fighting between Báji Ráo and Nizamul-Mulk from April 1731 till the time of concluding a treaty in August of that year. Nizam-ul-Mulk, however, in the last but one of his letters to Muhammad Khán, details what he calls his victories over Báji Ráo. The latter had invested Baroda which was occupied by men of his own nation. But hearing of the approach of the Mubammadans, the Mahrattas raised the siege and made off towards Surat, and when they thought they were at a safe distance, they turned off to plunder parganah Auklah.

Hearing of their movements, Nizam-ul-Mulk says, he left the ferry of Akbarpur and passed near the fort of Mándo, sending his heavy baggage and large guns to Burhanpur. Making forced marches he soon reached the river, where finding much of his artillery in his way and difficult to get across, he left it behind. Then redoubling his haste he reached the port of Surat, and for the third time left more of his impedimenta at the village of Malwá. They pressed on though troubled by hunger and thirst, carriage became very difficult to procure, and for two or three days deaths were frequent. For most of the time they passed through desert and wilderness. After crossing the ferry they drew near to the enemy and caught them unawares. They took to flight, but the Bhils and Kolis captured numbers of them, more especially at night when they had lost their way. The Muhammadan army had now come to the shores of an arm of the sea. This gives an opening to the Persian scribe to descant on serpents and the rod of Moses, Pharaoh and Pharaoh's host.

They had passed through the deserts and unoccupied country of Khán. desh, Surat, and Kokan, where from the thickness of the woods, it is difficult to force a practicable route. When they reached Surat the enemy were driven towards Daman, which was under the sway of the Farangi, and thence to the Kokan, the western boundary of the Dakhin. They then were caught at a place where you go from the Tal Kokan to the country

* Grant Duff, p. 225. of p. 225. I On the coast, 55 miles S. of Surat.

above the ghát. Thank God! the Subah of Gujrát was freed from Bájí Ráo, Málwá was no longer in danger, and the fort of Surat, which is the gate of God's house (Mecca), had been recovered from the infidel.

While Muhammad Khán had gone to meet Nizám-ul-Mulk, he had sent his son, Ahmad Khán, with Muķim Kháu to the east to reduce Kálkli and Chakaldah* two forts on the right bank of the Narbada, the head quarters of Udá Punwár. Both were places noted for their strength, more especially Chakaldah, which had four forts and deep ditches, with jungle on three sides and the Narbada on the fourth. As the garrisons offered a stubborn resistance, Muhammad Khán himself determined to march to his son's aid; and leaving Akbarpur on the 1st Shawwal 1143, (29th March, 1731), in two days he arrived near Kálkli. By an effort this fort was taken, and the next day they proceeded to invest Chakaldab. After six hours' fighting the besieged were overcome so far that they sued for terms. Three thousand souls, men and women, submitted and were set at liberty. The walls, ditch and bastions were razed to the ground, and gold keys as a token of the capture were forwarded to the Emperor. While the Muhammadans were encamped near Chakaldal, Baji Ráo was plundering in the direction of Jábwah,+ while Rájah Abhai Singh was opposing him. Muhammad Khán hoped to march that way after clearing the country and destroying the forts.

This capture of Udá Jí's forts provoked a strong remonstrance from Nizám-ul-Mulk. He had told Muhammad Khán that Udá Ji and his friends were at enmity with Báji Ráo. To secure success in the negociations with them, they must be treated with consideration. If there were any of Holkar's men in the forts, then with God's aid they should be seized. Otherwise it was highly advisable to postpone any attack, and to put these men out of humour for a trifling cause was undesirable. The year before, when Ráj Adhiraj (Raj Jai Singh Sawái of Jaipur) had cleared out the forts, he could not maintain himself, and the former owners re-occupied them. Former Názims had not troubled themselves about the place, which was at a distance from Ujain and in one corner. To retain it would give great trouble and bring little profit. Above all, at such a time they should not be interfered with, and the Emperor's advisers knew nothing of the state of affairs. The break up of the confederacy by the defeat on the 1st April, 1731, rendered these remonstrances of little weight, and before the letter was received the forts had been taken and levelled with the ground.

Muhammad Khán turned against the fort of Konsi, the home of

* Chakaldah is about 110 miles S. E. of Ujain, on the right bank of the Narbada, Kálkli has not beon traced.

+ There is a Jabwah 100 miles W. of Ujain.


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