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the heart of the forests, where they cultivate patches of ground with th hoe : they raise cotton, and kill elephants and deer for the sake of thei tusks and horns which they bring for sale to the weekly markets, hel on the borders of their forests. The Koch, who inhabit the forests i the northern part of the Dacca district, are altogether a much stoute and more hardy race, than the Hindoos or Mahomedans in the neigh bourhood. They live in the midst of the forests of Bhowal, Cossim pore, and Atteya, and notwithstanding the unhealthy state of this par of the country, they suffer much less from malaria, than the other inha bitants in the same part of the district. With the axe and hoe they clear away the jungle, and cultivate rice, oil-seeds, and cotton, which they sell or barter at the weekly markets held in the vicinity of the forest. They often suddenly vacate their locations, and the land they have brought into cultivation, and move into the interior, where they recommence their labour of clearing away the jungle. They live in small villages consisting of a few huts frequently situated at a considerable distance from each other. They eat animal food and drink spirits, and from this mode of living they possess considerable physical strength, and armed with spears do not hesitate to attack on foot, wild elephants and tigers. They are strictly honest and faithful in all their dealings, > and have the virtue, which few of their neighbours possess, of paying a great regard to truth. They are of a taciturn and reserved disposition. These tribes have different langnages, and are in the practice of carrying on traffic with the Bengalese and Assamese, through the medium of persons, who act as interpreters and brokers at the marts they visit. Many of them, however, can speak the Bengalee language and barter their goods themselves. In former times, the intercourse between the aboriginal tribes and the civilized people of the plains was much less frequent, than it is in the present day. The hill men accompanied by their wives and children generally travelled in large bodies to the marts or hauts on the frontier : and on their arrival there, they held no direct communication with the people of the plains, but sold their goods, either through interpreters, or by means of signs—both parties keeping at a dictance from each other during the negotiation. I have been informed by some old native merchants of Dacca, who formerly carried on trade in Tipperah, that before the Company's Government was established in that district, the Kookis from the oppression and injustice which they suffered from
the people of the plains, were in the habit of bartering their goods in this manner. A similar practice, though arising apparently from a different cause, occurs in Malabar. Speaking of the tribe called Nayaree in tbat country, Col. Welsh states : “They crawl to the road side or to a certain distance from a habitation, deposit something, such as a bundle of twigs, some wild berries or a honey-comb, set up a loud and hideous shriek or scream, and then retire to a sufficient distance to watch the resolt, when the nearest person either converses with them at a distance on the exchange, or at once deposits what may serve their purpose, and get out of the way to enable them to approach, and carry off their supplies without personal contact.”.
"* The Garos and Kookis bring down to the plains large basket loads of cotton, which they exchange for rice, dryish, betel-nut, salt, goats, poultry, ornaments, &c. Speaking of the former people and the places where they carry on traffic, Dr. Buchanan remarks: “ They repair once a week during the dry season, more particularly in December, January, and February. Almost the only article which they bring for sale is cotton in the seed, for the conduct of the Bengalees has totally put a stop to the collection of Agal-wood. On the Garos arriving at the market the Zemindar in the first place takes a part of the cotton as his share (Phul); the remainder is exchanged for salt, kine, hogs, goats, dogs, cats, fowls, ducks, fish, dry and fresh, tortoises, rice and extract of sugar-cane for eating : for tobacoo and betelnut for chewing, &c.” The Khassias bring to the mart on the borders of their country, cotton, iron ore, honey, wax, oranges, ivory, and cassia, and sell or exchange them for spirits, rice, tobacco, fish, &c. They and all the other hill tribes on the eastern frontier of Bengal, carry down their goods in large conical-shaped baskets, or hampers, called tapas by the Khassias. This kind of basket is made of ratan or bamboo, and is supported upon the back by means of a broad band which encircles the forehead, Men and women carry heavy loads of goods to the plains in this manner. The account, which is given of the Sesatæ coming to an established mart on the borders of Thina accompanied by their wives and children, and carrying heavy burdens in mats, so closely resembles the description which is given of the hill people of Assam and their mode of conducting traffic as to leave no doubt, I think, that the Sesatæ are one of these tribes,-capaγίνονται συν γυναιξίν και τέκνοις βασάζοντες φορτία μεγάλα εν ταρπόναις, αμαμπελί
* Welsb's Military Reminiscenses, Vol. II. p. 111.
www wapara hoia. The word tapróvais is supposed by Dr. Vincent to signif, sirpeis, rendered mats made of rushes, bags or sacs. It is more proba ble, however, that tarponais is a corruption of tapas, and that it refer to the baskets in which the hill people carry down their merchandize t: the plains. Though both Vincent and Heeren have rendered the word ταρπόναις αμαμπελίνων παραπλήσια, mats resembling in their outward appear ance the early leaves of the vine, or looking like the early branches of th vine, yet they consider waunted1vwv to refer, not to the material of which the mats were made, but to the articles contained in them, and which are supposed by them to have been the betel-leaf and areca nut, from which malabathrum was prepared. Malabathrum, however, is not betel. leaf nor areca nut, but the leaves of two or more species of Cinnamomum which are found in the valleys along the foot of the hills on the eastern frontier of Bengal. These trees bear fruit of the shape of a small oval drupe or berry, about the size of a black currant, and it is apparently to the resemblance between this fruit and a young or early grape, that the word waume www is applied, as signifying, like the early fruit of the vine.
The Sesatæ accompained by their wives and children brought in their tarponais or baskets, large loads or burthens, (poprla negara) of the branches of these trees, from the valleys in the interior, and bartered them at the marts or hauts on the borders of their forests, for the produce of the plains. It is mentioned that they held a feast or festival at the mart, or in other words, they feasted on the articles of food, &c. which they received in exchange for their merchandize. The barter was, no doubt, effected either by signs, or through persons, who, understanding their language, acted as brokers on behalf of the Thinæ or people of the plains of Assam. This is probable from the circumstance of its being mentioned that the Thinæ “continued on the watch,” while the Sesatæ were at the mart. The Thinæ or Assamese merchants appear to have entrusted the negotiation of their business to interpreters, while they themselves remained at some distance watching the proceedings.
The Sesatæ having completed the barter, and feasted for several days on the commodities they received, took their departure for their own country in the interior; or in other words, they returned to the jungles of their mountain recesses; after which, the Thinæ, coming forth from their place of retreat, repaired to the spot, and collected the baskets of
goods, which the strangers (the Sesatæ) had left behind them, (de détaira δοκούντες τότε παραγίνονται επί τους τόπους και συλλέγουσι τα εκείνων υπουρώματα.)
.) Whether the Sesatæ brought any merchandize besides the article which is described as Wuauheairwr taparkhora does not appear from the text. This is the only thing that is there specified; and from it, the Thinæ or the Assamese merchants proceeded to prepare the two articles called Petros and Malabathrum. The words, that refer to the former article, are in the original εξινιάσαντες καλάμους τους λεγομένους πέτρους. Dr. Vincent supposes that they apply to betel, and that the first part of the sentence, which he renders “they pick out the haulm which is called Petros,” is descriptive of the process of picking out the nerves or central fibres of the leaf of the Piper Betel, called in the preceding part of the text, from the resemblance between it and the vine, kautenluw; while he regards the rest of the sentence as having reference to the folding of these leaves with areca or bétel-nut, cardamoms, lime, and other adjuncts, into balls, or rather small parcels, which, he concludes, constituted the masticatory called Malabathrum in the text. He is of opinion that the betel leaf and areca nut were proerred from Arracan, which he identifies with the country of the Kirrhadæ, celebrated for its Malabathrum, and that the Sesatæ, whom he supposes to have been the Tartars of Lassa, were the carriers of this article along with other merchandize from that country to the frontier of China. Dr. Vincent's interpretation, however, fails to explain the circumstances which are connected with the manufacture and ultimate disposal of this article of traffic ; and is not reconcileable with the text. The Sesatze are there represented as bringing the article described by the word keuauterivov, from which Petros and Malabathrum were made, from their own country to a mart on its border ; as bartering it for articles on which they kept a feast for several days; and as then returning to their country in the interior. Their neighbours, the Thinæ, then prepared the substances of Petros and Malabathrum, and brought them to India. The supposition that the Thinæ are the people of the valley of Assam, and the Sesatx one of the aboriginal tribes bordering on that
is in accordance with the statements of the text. Dr. Vincent, on the other hand, represents the Sesatee or Tartars of Lassa as bringing the articles from which Petros and Malabathrum were formed, from a distant foreign country (Arracan) to the frontier of China. But, indepen
dently of this being opposed to the text, it is difficult to compreh why betel-leaf and areca nut should be carried to so great a distance the mere purpose of being made into balls, and afterwards brought b to India under the name of Malabathrum, as is there mentioned. ford gives a very different interpretation of this passage of the Sequel. supposes that Malabathrum is a kind of tea, which is prepared in form of balls, and sold at some of the frontier towns of Ava, Assam, : Laos. He considers the Sesatæ as identical with a gipsey tribe cal Besada, who are hucksters by trade, and who, in this capacity, frequ the different fairs throughout the country. The Besatae, he suppos made small baskets of certain leaves as large as those of the vine, wh they sewed together with the fibres of the bamboo : and then filled w leaves of a certain plant rolled into balls, which were of three sorts : cording to the quality and size of the leaves. The Petros of the te he supposes to be the leaf of the Dhac tree (Butea frondosa) which used all over India to make baskets, and which are fastened with skewe from the fibres of the bamboo. According to this interpretation, mal bathrum or tea, was sold by the Thinæ or Chinese to the Sesatæ Besatæ, who brought it into India for sale. But the reverse of this stated in the text, viz., that the Sesatæ brought the article of whic Malabathrum was formed from the interior of their country, and sold to the Thinæ, who made it into balls which they (the Thinæ) conveye into India.
Petros and Malabathrum consisted neither of betel nor tea, but of dit ferent parts of the trees yielding Tejpatra and Cassia Lignea. The forme is the bark, and the latter are the leaves of one or more species of trees o the genus Cinnamomum. That Malabathrum is identical with Cinna momum albiflorum is established by the fact, that Saduj is the name which is given to Malabathrum in the writings of the Arabs, while Saduj is applied in Persian works to Tejapatra or Tejpata, which is the Cinnamomum of Botanists.
Malatroon,” says Royle, “ is assigned as the Greek name in Persian Materia Medica.” Cinnamomum albiflorum is! also designated Tuj and Patruj* in Hindoostan--the former name being generally applied to the leaf, and the latter to the bark of the tree. Tuj, Tejpata, or Tejapatra, by all of which names this leaf is known, is used as
* Royle's Illustrations of Botany of the Himalayan Mountains, p. 325. Dr. Butter's Topography of Oude, p. 43.