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mastered, and is used by Douglas in his Virgil, 139, 28. & right hom hym-seluyn, and wrote (a history) from them himself; but, as the next lines inform us, the story was too much condensed.

1. 71. for likyng to here, to make it pleasing to hear: thus likyng is used in the Houlate, III. 15, and in 'Chrysts-Kirk o the Grene,' 13. 8; but in 1. 75 it means pleasure, delight, as in Barbour, Book I. 226 :

“Fredome mayss man to haiff liking.1. 76. Gydo it gate, Guido de Colonna got it: where he got it and how he used it any one may satisfy himself who compares Guido's * Historia Trojana' with the works of Dares and Dictys, and the • Roman de Troie' of Benoit de Sainte-More. Altogether it is one of the most wonderful and most successful cases of literary robbery the world has ever known. See Introduction to “Le Roman de Troie,' by Prof. Joly, Paris, 1870. Dictys was edited in 1833, and Dares in 1835, by Andreas Dederich of Bonn.

1. 80. How the groundes first grew = how the causes of the war originated; ground is still used in this sense, as, the grounds of their quarrel.

1. 81. torfer and tene = mischief and sorrow: þat hom tide aftur that befel them afterwards. tene is, properly, wrath, anger, but it also means the origin, the purpose, the carrying out, or the result of the wrath or anger. Golagros and Gawane, 1. 876, has “Ye sall nane torfeir betyde:” and Morte Arthure, 1. 1976, has “ - to tene and torfer for ever."

1. 84. derffe, daring, intrepid : doughty implies courage and endurance; derf, daring and intrepidity. Both words occur in Barbour, Blind Harry, and Douglas, and are still used in Scotland.

1. 88. thedur droghe assembled there. The use of d for th is frequent in this work, as in fader, moder, ledur, leddrit, &c., and is still common in some of the rural districts of the Lowlands: it may be l gehen ist

nei noted in the works of Burns and Hogg. 1. 90. buernes (A.S. beorn), chiefs, but often throughout this work

verfehlt it means men, soldiers, knights.

1. 92. throughe dynttes of hond. A peculiar phrase, suggestive of encounters in the ring rather than in a famous siege, but in alliteration the poet requires the utmost license. This phrase occurs frequently in the Morte Arthure and in this Troy Book, and is one of the proofs that they are the work of the same poet. For examples in the Morte Arthure we find,

ffor thow salle dye this day thurghe dynt of my handez ! 1. 1073
Thow salle dy this daye thorowe dyntt of my handez !

Be gret Gode, thow salle dy with dynt of my handys !

4228 Many dowghty es dede be dynt of his hondes !

3024 and in this Troy Book we have, And mony deghit þat day þurgh dynt of his hond.

1. 7795 Thow dowtles shall dye with dynt of my hond !

8273 Doutles with dynttes he deghes of my hond !

10250 Mony doughty were ded thurgh dynt of his hond.


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In these examples, and in many others where the word dynt occurs, as in the phrases “ derfe dyntes," "dynttes of swerdes," "derit hom with dynttes," &c., the similarity is not confined to the phrase, it extends to the whole sentence and even to the turn of it. Dynt occurs often in Barbour's Bruce, as in Bk 1. 1. 769; 2. 427; 2. 532; 6. 139, &c. : it is still in use and often confounded with dunt; but dynt represents a sharp blow as with a stick or a sword, while dunt represents a blow as with the fist, or in a collision, and is used to express the palpitation of the heart. It is so used in Ross's Helenore, and in Poems in the Buchan Dialect.

1. 95. all the ferlies þat fell all the note-worthy events that happened : ferly is properly a wonder, but it is also used to express any sight, incident, or event that is unusual or that attracts attention ; thus two friends meeting will say “let us walk thro' the toun and see the ferlies.” The word is used in both senses in this work, and is still so used. unto the ferre ende, on to the very close (of the struggle) : the far end is still a common expression in speaking of the close of a series or undertaking which is only begun, or proposed : see 1. 2247.

1. 97. ffrayne will I fer and fraist of þere werkes, now I shall search out and speak of their works. Fraist appears as fraite in l. 10714 with the sense of to try, to find out; both forms imply to make attempt upon.

1. 98. mater, subject of discourse, or, the materials of which it is composed, or, the story itself: the word is still used in all these senses.

RUBRIC. Pelleus exit Iason, Pelias enticed Jason : ax is still used in the sense of to ask, to ask eagerly, and, to entice.

1. 105. walit, selected. See note on 1. 8.

1. 106. Tetyda, Thetis. In 0.E. the names of people very often followed the accusative form : as explained in Specimens of English from 1394—1579, by Skeat; p. 448, note to 1. 4506.

1. 110. ne etill will I ferre, nor will I further attempt (to tell): etill or ettle, to aim, to take aim, to attempt to propose, to purpose, to design, is still used. Ramsay has in “The Gentle Shepherd,'

“ If I but ettle at a sang, or speak,

They dit their lugs, syne up their leglins cleek.” It is also used as a s., as in 'Tam o Shanter,' where Burns says of the witch Nannie, that she

“ Hard upon noble Maggie prest,

And flew at Tam wi' furious ettle." 1. 111.refers to the story of Æacus, who, having lost his subjects through a pestilence, entreated Jupiter to re-people his kingdom; and, according to his desire, all the ants which were in an old oak were changed into men, and called by Æacus Myrmidons, from uvpung, an ant.

1. 113. prudest, most powerful, strongest : 80 Wyntown bas it, IIII. 8. 50, and so it occurs again and again in this work : for its other meanings see Glossary.

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1. 114. born or hym-seluyn, born before himself, or, older than himself: or is still used in this sense.

1. 117. stightill the Realme, guide or govern the realm : stightill implies nerve and power sufficient to control and guide, in short stitheness : in the same sense it occurs in Golagras and Gawane, 1. 460.

“Schipmen our the streme thai stithil full straught.” 1. 121. erdand, lingering, abiding : in l. 923 it has the sense of Stitt found, and in l. 2217, under the form erdyng, it means living,

abiding : in l. 4233 we have erdis abides, makes abode. Cero 1. 123. #ydos. See Ovid, Heroides, Epist. xii.

1. 127. semly to wale, comely to look upon, or, as comely as one could look upon : semliche berynes = comely bairns, occurs in Morte Arthure, 1. 655, and is a common phrase still.

1. 129. fellist, fiercest, deadliest.

1. 130. mery of his wordys, hearty, kindly of speech : in l. 3745 Agamemnon is described as,

Meke as a maiden, mery with all ; and in l. 3941 Æneas is

A man full of mekenes & mery of his chere. 1. 133. inwones aboute, (that) dwell thereabout. Perhaps it ought to be in wones aboute' = in dwellings around, like the phrase, 'in entris aboute,' 1. 1600; "in cuntre aboute,' Piers Pl. (A) ii. 129.

1. 136. as bof, as though, or, as if; þof has also the sense of although 1. 138. lorde as he were, as if he were ruler : so Burns used as,—

“ The wind blew as 'twad blawn its last."-Tam o Shanter. 1. 139. for doute þat might falle, being afraid of what might happen, -lit, for fear of what might befall : doute is fear or apprehension, or the ground of fear or apprehension. Thus, in The Bruce, Bk 5, 1. 291 (Jamieson's ed.),

“Qulien thai saw me assailyet with thre

Off me rycht nakyn dowt thai had.” and in Bk 9, 1. 82 of the same work,

yone men will all wyn or de

For doute of dede thai sall nochť fle." 1. 147. full thicke, full frequently, full earnestly: thicke is still so used. throo (A.S. þra). Cf. Scot. thraw, thrawn.

1. 149. Of a fame þat fer, of a rumour that was current.

1. 150. for a bare aunter, as a great wonder : bare has here, and still has, the sense of pure, simple, and at the same time uncommon.

1. 160. pride has here the sense of strength, prowess. elde, old age : as in the old proverb, ' Eild and poortith 's sair to thole;' palsied eld,' Meas. for Meas., Act 3, Sc. 1; used also by Chaucer and Spenser.

1. 170. A nelue should be a nelne = an elne : so in 1. 153, a nyle an yle: cf. note to l. 83 of William of Palerne, E. E. T. ed.



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1. 171. birre, violence, fierceness : for the different meanings of birre see Glossary : they are still used. See note 1. 1902.

1. 172. bude wirke, must work : bude, a common word still, has always the sense of compulsion or necessity, = behoved : so also bus

behoves, in 11, 5168, 5643, 11722, 13549.

1. 173. Ayre, go, wend: occurs in Morte Arthure, and often in this
work: ‘I'll ayre awa hame', or “I'll airt awa hame', is still a common
form of speech, ayre in l. 175 is a different word, and signifies to ear,
to plough.

1. 174. with striffe or with stroke, by main force or by blows.
1. 175. on ardagh vise, in ploughman fashion.
1. 179. ferlyfull, wonderful, marvellous, as in The Bruce,

“ With sa ferlyfull a mycht

Off men off armys and archeris.”
1. 184. with-outen payne other, not to mention some others, or, and
others besides.
1. 185. ferke it away,

bear it away: for various meanings of ferke,
see Glossary.

1. 194. ay lastand, everlasting.

1. 196. sleght, craft. sletyng of wordes, cunning use of words,

cajolery (see note 1. 1251): slete = sleith is still used. Laktout, there is moné vl. 198. He were seker, he would be certain for sight of him euer,

never to see him again : for various meanings of siker, see Glossary.

1. 207. daintes ynogh, dainties in plenty, or, abundance of dainties : the phrase occurs in Morte Arthure, 1. 199, and dainty, or, daintith, is still used. However, dainty and daintith also mean regard, liking, relish, as in l. 463 of this work, and in Wyntoun, IX. 1.54 : dainty also means worthy, good-looking, lovely, as in Burns's song; “ Dainty Davie.'

1. 216. & þu furse holdyn, and thou (shalt be) esteemed a conqueror : furse, fierce, has here the sense of overbearing, irresistible.

1. 223. me set, suit me, become me: set is so used in The Bruce no

(Bk 1, 1, 394), in Henryson (Bannatyne Poems, p. 104); and in The
Gentle Shepherd,' Madge says of Bauldy,

“ It sets him weel, wi' vile unscrapit tongue,

To cast up whether I be auld or young!”
1. 225. flamond of gold, gleaming with gold : flamond so used by
Barbour, 8. 196.

1. 232. best wise, best style, finest display: a common phrase still.
Some say it is a corruption of the old law term 'best advise' (see Scots
Acts): the French phrase at point devise,' with the utmost exactness,
countenances the explanation : best wise occurs in Bruce, Bk 8, 1. 72,
and Bk 10, 1. 563.1

1. 248. with a sad wille, with a serious intention : for the various meanings and uses of sad, see Glossary.



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When Barbour's Bruce, and Blind Harry's Wallace are quoted, reference is made to Jamieson's edition.



1. 258. He put noght vnpossible Pelleus wordes, he deemed the promises of Pelias not impossible.

1. 264. He ertid, he shaped his course, directed, hastened. erte is still used in Scotland : for its different meanings in this work, see Glossary.

1. 270. be shyre waghes, the wild waves, the open sea : waghes occurs in l. 5585 as waches, with the sense of waters, soundings.

1. 273. abill of his crafte, skilful in his work : able is a common term to express one's superiority in his work or profession, as, an able workman, an able minister.

1. 278. foremast, greatest: is used to express the highest position of place, power, ability, or value.

1. 281. althing, everything: see note, 1. 133. onestly, completely, thoroughly : onestly has also the meaning decently, respectably, as in l. 1600; also a meaning implying a combination of both complete or thorough and decent or respectable; and this is the meaning in that phrase of Burns, “honest men and bonnie lasses."

1. 293. as I wene, as I wot, as I understand.
1. 298. wo þat trawe lyst, whoever believes (the story) may.
1. 299. helle yates, the gates of hell,
1. 300. coght, caught : often, caght: both forms still in use.

1. 301. the close of þat curset In, the entrance of that cursed abode : a close is a narrow passage to a castle or stronghold, as in 11. 11173 and 12982, or, simply, an entrance, or gate, as here: also, the enclosure behind a house. Every one who has visited Edinburgh will remember the closes and entries of the High Street and Canongate ; for In see note, 1. 2156.

1. 302. So dang he þat dog, he so beat that dog : dang is so used by Wyntoun, Barbour, Blind Harry, and indeed all the Scottish poets, and is still used. For the various forms and meanings of the word, which occur in this work, see Glossary, Ding, Dyng, Dang. dynt of his wappon, a stock phrase in the Morte Arthure and in this work, which becomes dyntes of hondes, dyntes of swerdes, by way of variety.

1. 303. warlag, monster : so pronounced, and with the same meaning still : it is so used by Dunbar, and Lindsay as warlo, which is

vide war another pronunciation. wan atter = black venom, black

gore, filthy

blade bood. blood : wan is so used by Blind Harry and Douglas. atter may be here rendered piss. For other meanings of atter, see Glossary : in l. 2286 it is a verb, to embitter, to cause sorrow or suffering. 1. 315. wan, conquered : occurs frequently in this work, and is still

at his wille aght, held it in subjection to himself = ruled it as he pleased : so Wyntoun, VIII. 2. 9,

“Of Kyngis þat aucht þat Reawté,

And mast had rycht þare kyng to be." aght still implies possession and right of disposal.

1. 321. buernes, people, subjects.
1. 322. pals, so in 11. 1378, 5610, = peles (pronounced peel and


in use.

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