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From karu-kh, made by them, they made.
◄◄◄ kạru-h-as, they made me (or they made for him).
kạr"-h-akh, they made thee (or for them).
[kar-h-an, they made him, is not used. We say, सुड् क॑राख् suh karu-kh].
af kari-h-awa, they made you.
[afia kạri-h-akh, they made them, is not used. We say, तिम् करिख् tim kari-kh. केरिचय् kari-h-akh, means 'he
made them for them '].
There being no suffix for the first person plural, there are no special forms for thou, he, you, or they made us.
With regard to all these forms, the full forms of the pronouns may also be used, with, or without the suffixes. Thus,
We may say either
mě kar"-m-akh tsch, by me was-made-byme-thou thou, or
(b) aqua ay kar"-m-akh tsch, was-made-by-me-thou thou, or (c) ♬ dạng mẽ kạru-m-akh, by me was-made-by-me-thou, or karmakh, was-made-by-me-thou, or
◄◄◄ mě karu-kh toah, by me was-made-thou thou, or
(ƒ) ■◄◄◄ mě kạru-kh, by me was-made-thou.
We cannot, however, use the two following forms.
(g) ■ ■ ■ mẽ karu tah, by-me was-made thou or
(h) ◄◄ ◄ karu-m tsoh, was-made-by-me thou.
In other words when the full form of the pronoun in the nominative
is used, the corresponding suffix must always accompany it.
Other pronominal suffixes can similarly be used. Thus, day kar"-m-ay, I made for thee.
B. SECOND CONJUGATION.
Neuter Verb (viii. iii. 77–97). (c. Forms only).
mar, die, has its past tense irregular. It is thus
conjugated (viii. iii. 26, 31, 59, 65, 92).
बूदुच् mūdu-kh. स्वयख् mūya-kch. मूदिव mūdi- ue. | स्वयव moys-200.
When mar means to unite, it is regular. Thus, ¶ marun, he united him.
5 (a.) THE VERBAL AORIST PARTICIPLE.
This participle occurs in all three conjugations. In the first and second (viii. iii. 78) conjugations it is a true aorist. It expresses past time indefinitely, with no reference to proximity or distance. E.g., afa karyōv, he (was) made (by us), we made; bovyōv, he became. It is therefore the participle, and the aorist is the tense, of narration in these two conjugations.
J. 1. 8
In the third conjugation, it is used instead of the past participle; and describes something which has happened lately. Thus, g wuphyōv, he flew (a short time ago).
This participle is formed in the first and second conjugations by changing the final y (ě) of the feminine plural of the past participle to you. Thus, kar, do; past participle kar", fem. plur.
kare; aorist participle afa kuryŏv.
ōv, not in
In those cases, in which the feminine plural ends in of in a ya (ě), (see p. 42) the aorist participle ends in ì you. Thus, daz, burn; past participle dad", fem. plur. दज़ daze ; aorist participle दज़ोव् dazūr. There are four exceptions (viii. iii. 49, 81). The aorist participle of kets, be moist, is katsyōv; that of
rūts, be preferred,
vyats, pervade, isvyatsyōv; that of
wutsyōv]. Note that in the fem. pl. Past, in these verbs, the
y is elided. Thus katse, not
रोन ro/se not रोच्य rotsě (viii. iii. 49, 81 ) .
vyats, not a vyatsě;
In the third conjugation, the aorist participle is formed by adding you to the root direct. Thus, wuph, fly, aorist participle g wuphyov, but there are exceptions which will be dealt with later on.
Içvara-kaula spells this participle indifferently with you or with yauv. Both are pronounced the same, like a yōv (viii. iii. 39).
[The true termination of this participle is yō, the v, as well as the y of the plural to be noted later, are only added for the sake of euphony]. Special Rules for the First and Second Conjugations.
The base of the aorist participle of the first and second conjugations being the same as the feminine plural of the past participle, the final consonant of the verbal root undergoes certain changes (viii. iii. 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75). For the same reason, in the aorist participle, the Vowel of the verbal root remains unchanged (see page 41). The following are examples of the changes. The reader is referred to pp. 42 and ff. for details.
thak, be tired, aorist participle thacyōv.
Nos. 7-10 are also examples of the elision of y. The following
are further examples, see p. 42 for details.
The past participles of these two verbs are irregular, vide p. 45.
Remember that all these changes occur only in the first and second conjugations. The rules for the third conjugation are quite different..
* My Pandit prefers a muhyōv:
Special Rules for the Third Conjugation.
In this conjugation, the participle (and consequently, the tense formed from it) is not used as an aorist, but as a past; with the same meaning as the past participle of the first and second conjugations. It is not the tense of narration.
The aorist participle is formed by adding you to the root. Thus, wuph, fly, a wuphyōv. Before this the final consonant of in the case of verbs of the first and zeth, be long, a verb of the 3rd a zethyōv, and not sechyōv,
a root is not liable to change, as it is
Note also that in this conjugation, y is not elided after ts, tsh, z, or a ñ (viii. iii. 49). Içvara-kaula in this sūtra gives the following list of verbs, which do not elidey. It includes many of the verbs ending in these letters which belong to the third conjugation. grots, be splashed out; tsots, have insufficient means of
livelihood; tshots, be empty; a tez, be sharp;
paz, be fit;
braz, shine; bawaz, be preferred; lets, be weak; grūts, be pure. Thus, ¶¶¶ grotsyōv, not ¶¶¶ grötsōv.
The other verbs belonging to the third conjugation, which end in these letters, and which are not mentioned by Içvara-kaula in the above sutra are the following:
trats, fear; mots, remain over and above; चछ्र atsh, be weak ; ग gatsh, go; पलज़ palar, be useful; रज ranz, be pleased; laz, be suitable; wuz, be wide awake, appear.
sapaz, become, is considered the same as a sapan, or a sapad, and belongs to the second conjugation. According to my Pandit v palaz, above recorded, belongs to the second conjugation.
According to my Pandit, of these, trats and retain य y. The others retain it optionally except gatoh, which are irregular. See below, pp. 64 and 65.
¶ ats and
s. All the
Moreover, y is not, in this conjugation, elided after examples of the elision ofy after this letter given by Içvara-kaula belong either to the first or second conjugation.