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Wethur, Whethur, 8. a wether, Wilde, 8. wild animals, game,
155, 161, 172.

Wex, part. p. of Wax, grown up, Wile, 8. a wile, a snare, 4444.

Wilfulde, Wilfull, adj. eager,
Whaghe, s. 12310. See Waghe. headstrong, selfish, 353, 725, 2872.
Whap, v. to strike rapidly, to Will, v. to wander, to be lost, to

shoot, 4743; pret. Whappet. go astray, pret. Wilt, 2359.
Wharle, s. (A.N.) a square-headed Will, Wyll, adj. wrong, astray,

bolt for à cross-bow or engine, lost, wyll of my gate = lost my way,

2369; all will of his wone = quite
Whe, s. a man, a noble, 8269. homeless, 12823.
See Wee.

Will, v. to wish, to desire, to
Whedur, adv. whither, where, command, 11367.

Wille, s. wish, desire, purpose,
Whegh, s. See Wegh.

disposition, determination, courage,
Whelle, v. (A.S.) to quell, to lay

377, 455, 1156, 1392, 1918, 3917,

11018; Wylle, 4222.
low, 47 43.
Wheme, adj. dear, adored, 2649;

Willè, Willy, adj. (A.S.) favour-
beautiful, 6203; (another form of

able, hearty, eager, 1775, 7713.

Wilne, v. (A.S.) to will, to wish,
While, s. time, season, space, 406,

to desire, 9202, 11012; Wylne,

203, 482.
1157, 1450, 4623, 7659, 11703;
Qwhile, 11030; a hond while = an Wilt, pret. of Will, was lost,

instant, shortly, immediately. wandered, 2359; entangled, per-
Whiles, adv. while, 1171.

plexed, 13160.
Whipe, v. to wipe, to dry, 3380. Winly, Wynly, adv. (A.S.) freely,

easily, quickly, 1165, 8655.
White, Whyte, v. to requite, Wirde, 8. fate, luck, evil, mis-
11509, 11726.

fortune, 629, 4188, 4199, 7051.
Who whoever, 5943.

Wirke, v. to work, to do, to use,
Whyle, s. See While.

to dispose, 172, 576, 1881; imper.
Whylenes, 8. madness, foolish- Wirkes.

Wise, 8. (A.S.) manner, style,
Whyte, v. See White.

175, 232, 1156, 1177, 8387 ; ways,

-on þere best wise = as best they
Wicket, 8. a wicket, a window,

could, 2018; on all wise = on all

ways, on every plan, 10186.
Widre, v. to wither, to sink, 5301. Wise, adj. wise, skilled, 1463,
Wight, adj. (A.S.) brave, cour- 1530; aware, 13486.

ageous, famous, 536, 1098; super. Wisshe, v. to flow, to wash; part.
Wightist, 1297.

Wisslyng, flowing, 1606; or from
Wightly, adv. boldly, firmly, Wisse, Wisshe, Wysshe, v. (A.S.)
securely, quickly, 701, 861, 876,

to teach, to advise, to instruct, 4,

2261, 8146; to know, to be aware
Wightnes, 8. power, courage, of, 13229 ; part. Wisshyng, as a s.
bravery, 12198.

advice, warning, 8151.
Wild, adj. keen, furious, 1463. Wist, pret. of Wit, knew, were

ness, 9327.

informed, 23, 2159 ; part. p. known, Woke, pret. of Wake, woke,

burst out, awaked, 8695, 8885.
Wit, Wyt, Wytte, s. mind, sense, Wold, Wolde, pret, would, wish-

skill, ingenuity, 4, 148, 1217, 1496, ed, 1440, 1794; I wish, 472.
1632, 0277; of þere wit past =

Wole, 8. wool, fleece, 161.
went out of their senses, went
mad, 1360.

Won, for Wone, v. (A.S.) to
Wite, v. (A.S.) to blame, to re-

dwell, 1581, 8127.
proach, 4936, 7069.

Wond, pret. of Wone, or Wonde,
Wite, s. blame, 12273.

2717, 12+13, 13133; Wont, 12553;

imperat. of Wonde, refrain, 3380.
With, prep. (A.S.) by, by means Wond, 8. a wound, 10416.

of, for, in, on account of, 132, 330,

476, 732, 1976, 2891, 10809. Wonde, v. (A.S.) to refrain, to
With-drogh, With-droghe, pret.

be afraid, to desist through fear,
of Withdraw, 1224, 2008.

494, 590, 3330, 5048; pret.
Withoute, adv. outside, 1637, Wonde, v. to wound, 1297.

Wondyn, 4S4.
Withouten, Withoutyn, prep.

Wonder, adj. wonderful, 1542 ;
without, 184, 1761, 2992; with-

adr. wonderfully, 9557; 6. to sur-
outen payne other = and no doubt

prise, to cause to wonder, 9821.
many more, 184,

Wonderful, adj. very great, 1355.
Witterly, adv. truly, carefully, Wonderly, Wondurly, adv. won-

certainly, 1893, 2129, 9180, 9341. derfully, 161, 9828.
Witty, adj. (A.S.) skilful, 1463. Wone, v. (A.S.) to dwell, to
Wo, pron. who, 172, 298.

abide, pret. Wond, 2717, 13133;
Wo, 8. sorrow, death, destruction, Wone, & a dwelling, a palace, a

Wont, 12553.
1401, 2137, 5935.
Woche, s. watch, guard, 561, Wonen, pret. of Wyn, went, got,

city, 4780, 9857, 12823.

reached, 1165, 4694; part. p. gone,
Woche, 8. (A.S.) mischief, evil,

got, 7756; taken, captured, 3607;
danger, fear, 5050, 6122, 6736, Wonyn, 6963; Wonnyn, 4772.

Wode, alj. (A.S.) mad, furious, Wonsped, 8. rashness, daring,

Wong, s. (A.S.) the cheek, 1521.
1217, 5877.
Wode, 8. a wood, 330 ; Wodde, Wont, 8. want, loss, 12085.

7945. See Wanspede.
1350; Wod, 13528, 13599.
Wodely, adv. madly, wildly, Wont, pret. of Wone, 12553.

W00, s. woe, despair, 1360.
Wodenes, Wodnes, s. madness, Worche, v. to work, to result,
fury, 2008, 6819, 10204.

Woghit, part. p. of Wogh, wooed, Worile, s. fame, talk, report, 295,
courted, 482.

Woghe, 8. (A.S.) a wall, 4773. Wore, pret, of Were, defended,
Woinerond, part. wandering,

raving, 13920.

Worle, s. the world, 9761.
Woke, 8. a week, 499.

Worm, s. (A.S.) a serpent, 1573.

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pose, 9788.

Worse, adj. as a 8. the worse, | Wyde, adj. wide, 1329.

Wyle, 8. a wile, a scheme, a de-
Worship, s. fame, good name, vice, 148.

character, rank, renown, success, Wyll, adj. See Will.
reverence, 482, 655, 810, 1124,

1397, 1488, 2261 ; Worchip, 13708. Wylne, v. Sce Wilne.
Worthe, v. (A.S.) to be, to be- Wyn, 8. wine, 373; Wyne, 464.

come, to follow, to drive, to press, Wyn, s. praise, fame, display,
to suffer, 597,789,956, 1388, 1975, 13346, 13708.
2136; or pai fay worthil = or they Wyn, v. to get, to reach, to come
were killed, 6823.

at, to obtain, to win, to take, 172,
Worthely, adv. becomingly, suit- 377, 649, 953, 1138, 1468, 9212;
ably, 1632.

to manage, 3145; to capture,
Wose, pron. whose, 5566.

8607 ; pret. Won, Wan, Wonen ;
Woso, pron. whosoever, whoever,

part. p. Wonen, Wonnyn, Wonyn.

Wynd, s, wind, breath; þai wast
Wot, 1 p. 8. pres. of Wit, I

þaire wynd = they talk to no pur.
know, deem, advise, 536, 629,
2487, 7944.

Wynly, adv. See Winly.
Wothe, s. danger, harm, wrong, Wyt, Wytte, 8. See Wit.

fear, dread, 1223, 6050, 8357, Wyvly, adv. as a wife, 3359.

Wothely, adv. severely, 8826.

Yald, Yalde, pret. of Yelde, to
Wox, pret. of Wax, grew, be- yield, to submit, 1275, 6499, 7656.

Yalow, s. yellow, 5462,
Wrang, 8. a wrong, 11616.

Yark, v. to jerk, to cast, to
Wrappid, adj. hasty, angry, 1426; change, to rush, to pass, 414,

misprint for Wrappid, or prob. for 5595, 10738, 13968; to prepare,

882; to pack, to crowd, 11265.
Wrathe, v. (A.S.) to anger, to zarpe, v. prob. for Warpe, 6081.

become angry, 4206, 8112. Yate, s. a gate, 299, 1555, 10738,
Wreke, 8. vengeance,

1436, 11151.
12072; v. to avenge, to revenge, Yche, adj. each, 7878, 9683.
1750, 1873.

Ychon, s. (A.S.) each one, 5406,
Wright, 8. (A.S.) a workman, a

carpenter, 1530.

Yelde, v. (A.S.) to yield, to sub-
Writhe, v. to turn, to overthrow,

mit, to render, 1177, 8660 ; pret.

Yald, Yalde, 1275, 6499, 7656 ;
Wrixle, Wryxle, v. to overpower, part. p. Yolden, atoned for, 7941.

to overcome, to perplex, to bandy, Yeme, v. (A.S.) to guide, to govern,
415, 2061, 3120, 9327.

to keep, to guard, 136, 562, 615,
Wroght, part. p. of Werke, , 869, 1270, 10791; pret. Yemyt.
wrought, 1436; built, 1542.

Yener, adj. eager, quick, 3955;
Wull, v. will, 11419, 13221.

misprint for Yeuer, (A.S. gífer).
Wull-full, adj. (= wilful, but Yenernes,&. frankness, generosity,

used as an adv.) eagerly, intensely, eagerness, enthusiasm, 543, 869;
3035; prob. for well-full, very. zynernes, 1275; for Yeuerness.

came, 493,

zynerus, 357.

Yenerus, adj. free, generous, | Yode, pret. of Go, went, walked,
kindly, 3917; zyneris, 1212 ; fell, flowed, 284, 908, 1015, 1244,

Yepe, adj. (A.S. geap) sinart, Yoke, v. to yoke, 902.

nimble, brave, rash, 357, 902, Yolden, part. p. of Yelde, ren-
7570; Yep, 11265; as a s. a clever

dered, atoned for, 7911.
one, a virago, 13231.
Yepely, adr. smartly, quickly,

Yomer, v. to murmur, to lament,
eagerly, 414, 902, 6081, 10738,

to cry, 543 ; part. Yomeryng, as a
10791; usually, 12568.

8. mourning, lamentation, regret,

1722, 2291, 8175, 9959.
Yerne, r. (A.S.) to desire eagerly, Yond, adj. yon, 3160.

11739, 11857.
Yerne, 8. iron, 894, 9133, 10463 : Yong, Yonge, adj. young, 1242,

pl. irons, chains, 3523 ; Yrne, 6018.
Yerth, Yerthe, 8. the earth, the Yop, adj. eager, courageous, 6642.
ground, 6817, 8315, 10888.

See Yepe.

Yore, adj. old, former, of yore,
Yet, adv. still, 1628.

9959; a zer wus full yore = a year
Yett, v. (A.S. geótan) to flow, to had passed away, 1396S.
gush; part. Yettyng, flowing, 8175.

Yours your family and rela-
Yeverly, adv. quickly, willingly, tives, 1722. See Note to II.

Yle, 8. an isle, an island, 101, Yre, 8. rage, ire, 1338, 1424.
153, 265.

Yreful, Yrfull, adj. vengeful,
Ylka, ulj. any, 588.

furious, 1330, 5445.
Ylke, ailj. same, 12552.

Ys, is, 4647.
Ylkon, s. each one, 1614.

Ysse, Ysshe, v. to issue, to go
Yll, ado. badly, severely, 10976. forth, to rush, 5784, 6631.
Ymagry, s. carving, sculpture, | Yssue, Yssew, s. issue, exit, re-

sult, 1556, 2708.
Ymur, 8. (Icel. ilmr) fresh, whole- Ythes, s. (A.S.) waves, the sea,
'some fragrance, 897, 1575.

1045, 1066, 1992, 11869, 13161.
Ymyddes, prep. in the middle of, Yver, 8. ivory, 1665, 6202.

amidst, 4957, 7813, 13795. zynerly, alv. quickly, promptly,
Ymydward, in the centre, 8769. 902; prob. for zyuerly.
Ynmast, adj. inmost, undermost, 3ynernes, s. See Yenernes.

3ynerus, zyneris, ailj. See
Ynne, 8. See In, Inne.

Ynogh, Ynow, Ynowe, adj.

enough, much, many, 373, 1215, Zodias, s. the Zodiac, 3723,




For No. 40, “ENGLISH GILDS."

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The Révue Critique in its review of English Gilds (1 Dec. 1871, p. 229) notices that the 13th-century French version of the 14th-century englisht “ Usages of the City of Winchester” contained in p. 349—363 of our Gild volume, enables several of the Englisher's mistakes to be corrected. For instance :-

Dans le texte de M. T. S. on lit "... everych gret hows in wham me worketh the qwyltes, shal to the ferme vs. by the yere, they (though] he ne worche but o-lupy cloth.” Le passage français correspondant est ainsi conçu ... chescun grant ustil dunt l’en ovre les bureaus, doit a la ferme de la vile cinc soz par an, mes ke il ne uvere fors un seul drap.” Comme on voit, le texte français permet de corriger deux contre-sens de l'anglais. Dans le premier membre de phrase, il s'agit d'un outil est non d'une maison, et dans le second, le véritable sens est à moins que, et non quoique. Le traducteur anglais aura confondu ustil avec ostel, et peut-être lu ou compris même que là où il y avait mes que, d'où il résulte que le texte qu'il traduisait était français.'

Another very difficult passage in the Custumary of Winchester, is compared with the French version, by the reviewer, M. Gustave Faigniez, and interpreted differently from Mr Toulmin Smith's sidenotes :Dans ce passage .

nous croyons qu'il s'agit, non d'une foire, mais de la réunion solennelle de la ghilde des marchands, d'abord pour faire un repas de corps, à l'occasion duquel on lève un droit, ensuite pour délibérer sur les intérêts communs':

“Derechef, kant l'en purvoit bevere “ Also, whanne porveyde gilde markande, l'en doit per commun gylde chaffare, me shal, by commune assent par les mesters de la vile en- a-sent, by the maystres of the towne, aquere genz ke covenable soient e de

spyze folke that be covenable and of bone fame a requiller en gilde mark- good loos, and gadere that ryzte of chepande. E kechescun de ceus eit en chatel men. And that everych of hem habbe 4 liv, vaillant ou plus. E fowre hynen stalworthe, other mo, and ke si serrunt aquilliz serunt hlotéz thelke that beth y-herborwed [sic, hébérgés, logés ?] à quatre in


houses, meisuns cume soleient estre a tuz tens. as hij ouzte to be in alle tymes. And E kant l'en avera beu gilde mark. whanne me hath wel trewe y-chaffared ande, les quatre mesuns soi in the fowre howses, hij shulle hem asemblerunt à voier ce ke il averunt sembly for to y-se that hij habbe thalevé et ce ke purrunt lever. rered, and of than that hij mowe a-rere. E si trespas i ad fet, per And zif that eny thing ys mysdoun, by

assent soit amendé. commune assent that hit be a-mended. E si nule mesun vaille plus And zif eny hows is more worth than de autre, soit chargé à an other, be hit y-charched to hys value. E ke li argent ke sera worthy. And that selver that shal be levé des 4

avantdites a-rered of thilke hows by-fore y-seyd, soit baillé assis prodes homes be y-take to sexe godemen by-fore yavantdis esleuz e jurez par com- seyd y-chose and y-swore, for the commun assent a leaument garder e mune assent, and treweleche wetye, and leaument

dispendre et leal trewleche spende, and treweleche acunte rendre as prudeshomes de la vile countes zelde to godemen of the town dous feiz peran per taille ou per twyzes by the zere, by skore other by escrit.”- Arch. Journ., vol. ix, p. 73. scryt."- Eng. Gilds, p. 357.

To those who have the opportunity, a comparison between the whole of these two versions is worth making, as was pointed out in English Gilds, Introd. xlvi.

Mr Henry Charles COOTE, F.S.A., of Doctors' Commons, has lately written a Preface, in the “ Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archæological Society," to the “ Ordinances of some Secular Guilds of London froin 1354 to 1496 ; Ordinances of St. Margaret, Lothbury, 1456, and Orders by Richard Bishop of London for Ecclesiastical Officers, 1597,” extracted by Mr John Robert DANIEL-TYSSEN from the records of the Court of the Commissary of London. In this Preface Mr Coote contests Dr Brentano's view, and also Mr Toulmin Smith's, of the origin of Gilds, and shows, to his own satisfaction, that the English Gild was a direct descendant of the Roman Collegium. As it is only right that our Members should have a summary of Mr Coote's argument before them at once, his own words on pages 28-30 of his Preface are extracted here :






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